Monitorial System: was it really an Indian idea?
The article traces the journey of the origin and development of the monitorial system. It was also known as the Bell-Lancaster method on the name of its two popularizers. The trajectory of the Monitorial System is quite interesting. As claimed by Andrew Bell this system was practiced in India and had its roots of origin in Madras hence its name the Madras School. But when we delve deeper we get acquainted with certain astonishing facts that it was never the case in India because there is no authenticity to this that it was being followed here and it was only later after Bell propounded this system that it became to be followed in. Though it became quite popular in the nineteenth century in England and Europe yet it proved to be an inefficient and incompetent way of providing substitutes for teachers. A fellow student helping another class mate can never be a teacher but only a help. Moreover, without being equipped with the training to teach how can a student enjoy the status of being a teacher? Furthermore it explores the causes that lead to its gradual decline inspite of it scaling the heights of glory. Its practice (if any) in India is also looked into. This article substantiates the fact that a pupil-teacher can never be a master but can only be an imperfect substitute for them.
2. Hager, Phil E. â€œNineteenth Century Experiments with Monitorial Teaching.â€ The Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 40, No. 4, Africa: Its Educational Problems and Promises (Jan., 1959): 164-167.
3. Rayman, Ronald. â€œJoseph Lancasterâ€™s Monitorial System of Instruction and American Indian Education, 1815-1838.â€ History of Education Quarterly, Vol. 21, No. 4 (Winter, 1981): 395-409.
4. Rich, R. W. The Training of Teachers in England and Wales during the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge: The University Press, 1933.
5. Jeffreys, M. V. C. Revolution in Teacher-Training. London: Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd., 1961.
6. Dâ€™ Souza, Austin and J. N. Chatterjee,. Training For Teachers in India and England Calcutta: Orient Longmans, 1956.
7. Cruickshank, Marjorie. â€œDavid Stow, Scottish Pioneer of Teacher Training in Britain.â€ British Journal of Educational Studies, Vol. 14, No. 2 (May, 1966): 205-215.
8. Bell, Andrew. An Analysis of the Experiment in Education, made at Egmore, near Madras, Third Edition, (Printed by T. Bensley, Bolt Court, Flest Street, for Cadell and Davies in the Strand, 1807).
9. Singh, Brij Raj. The First Protestant Missionary to India, Bartholomaeus Ziegenbalg (1683-1719). New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1999.
10. Blackburn, Stuart. Print, Folklore and Nationalism in Colonial South India, n. p.: Permanent Black, 2003.
11. Raman, Bhavani. Document Raj, Writing and Scribes in Early Colonial South India. Ranikhet: Permanent Black, 2012.
12. Anathnath Basu (edited), Reports on the State of Education in Bengal (1835 & 1838). William Adam, (Calcutta: the Calcutta University Press, 48, Hazra Road, Ballygunge, 1941)
13. Parulekar, R. V. Survey of Indigenous Education in the Province of Bombay (1820-1830), Bombay: India Printing Works, 9 Bakehouse Lane, Fort, 1945, (Reprinted 1951).
14. Laird, M.A. Missionaries and Education in Bengal-1793-1837. London: Oxford University Press, 1972.
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the Publisher. The Editors reserve the right to edit or otherwise alter all contributions, but authors will receive proofs for approval before publication.
Copyrights for articles published in International Journal of Innovative Knowledge Concepts are retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.