An Unrecognised Gender Gains Recognition
The Hijra or Eunuch refers to an individual who is transsexual or transgender. This group occupies the lower end of the Indian social hierarchy. Eunuchs can be emasculated men, non-emasculated men and intersexed persons,who have the physiological qualities of both sexes. The Supreme Courtâ€™s ruling in favour of a â€˜Third Genderâ€™, on 15th April, 2014, finally recognized the Hijras as legal citizens of India with the right to vote. A population count of the transgenders was impossible due to lack of recognition. According to a report in the Times of India on 30 May, 2014, the â€˜third genderâ€™ counts for 4.9 lakhs of Indian population. The transgender activists believe that the figures are inflated, although they are elated at the official recognition of the alternate genders.
The Hijras have been denied their rights as promised in the Indian Constitution which incorporates certain articles, not followed meticulously until the Supreme Court ruling on 15 April, 2014, that they themselves could enjoy equal opportunities in education, employment etc.
The Lok Sabha has passed the Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill, 2016. It has also passed the Trafficking of persons (Prevention, Protection and Rehabilitation) Bill, 2018. Both these Bills are pending consideration in the Rajya Sabha, though the transgender community is not happy with the above Bills.
The Hijras face a multiplicity of problems. They are denied various civic amenities and confront discriminations in the fields of education, employment and in other walks of life. It may be stated that a more sympathetic approach towards the â€˜Third Genderâ€™ can draw them out of their predicament and contribute positively towards society.
2. A.Revathy, The Truth About Me: A Hijra Life Story,
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A._Revathi & https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/8771361-the-truth-about-me accessed on 9 December, 2018
3. Kinship and social organization-Hijra
accessed on 11 December, 2018
4. Hijra Facts, information, pictures |Encyclopedia.com articlesâ€¦
accessed on 10 December, 2018
5. Economy â€“ Hijraâ€“Countries and Their Cultures
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hijra_(Indian_subcontinent) accessed on 30 November, 2018
6. James M.Freeman (1979), â€œTransvestites and Prostitutes, 1969-1972â€, in Untouchable : An Indian Life History. Stanford University Press
7. Emasculation Ritual Among the Hijras â€“ Academia.edu
By Oleg Nekrassovski accessed on 30 November, 2018
8. For details about Bahachura Mata go through
Emasculation Ritual Among the Hijras 25 â€“ WSU Athletics
accessed on 30 November, 2018
9. Hijra (South Asia) â€“Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
accessed on 1 December, 2018
10. For a detailed study about the grievances of the transgender, see
Transgender-The Judgment Information System,
accessed on 8 December, 2015
11. Lakshmiâ€™s Story â€“ Words Without Borders
accessed on 3 December, 2018
12. Supreme Court of India recognizes transgender as third gender. 8 May, 2014
http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Supreme-Court-recognizes-transgenders-as-third-gender/articleshow/33767900.cms accessed on 8 December, 2018
13. Supreme Court recognizes transgender as â€œthird gendersâ€
http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Supreme-Court-recognizes-transgenders-as-third-gender/articleshow/33767900.cms 15 April, 2014 accessed on 5 December, 2018
14. Will Now Be Included In Kolkata Police â€“ Mens XP.com
https://www.mensxp.com/special-features/today/27900-hijras-will-now-be-included-in-kolkata-police-and-the-west-bengal-government-deserves-an-applause-for-this.html accessed on 25 December, 2018
15. Social inclusion: Bengal govt rains sops on transgenders. 25 December, 2018. http://www.hindustantimes.com/kolkata/social-inclusion-mamata-s-bengal-govt-rains-sops-on-transgenders/story-OzDLHS60pF5QL52o1owcDJ.html accessed on 25 December, 2018
16. Odisha bureaucrat breaks free, comes out as transgender. 22 December, 2018. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/bhubaneswar/Odisha-bureaucrat-breaks-free-comes-out-as-transgender/articleshow/50274572.cms accessed on 25 December, 2018
17. For detail, see www.businessstandard.com, Last updated at December 20, 2018, accessed on 1 April, 2019
18. See, for detail, The Hindustan Times, New Delhi, 27 March, 2019. See also https://www.hindustantimes.com/lok-sabha-elections/lok-sabha-elections-2019-only-9-transgenders-from-gurugram-enrolled-as-voters/story-peMcDdPVP8rPHgPXp8DboN.html The Hindustan Times, New Delhi, 25 February, 2019 https://www.hindustantimes.com/lok-sabha-elections/lok-sabha-elections-2019-life-will-be-hard-if-trans-bill-is-passed-says-first-time-voter/story-ibEIaohnntYt8amT1J3wbK.html
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the Publisher. The Editors reserve the right to edit or otherwise alter all contributions, but authors will receive proofs for approval before publication.
Copyrights for articles published in International Journal of Innovative Knowledge Concepts are retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.