International Journal of Innovative Knowledge Concepts http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <strong>Welcome to IJIKC</strong></p> <p><strong>International Journal of Innovative Knowledge Concepts (IJIKC)</strong> is approved by UGC and <strong>monthly </strong>published in English, Hindi &amp; Marathi for scholars, practitioners, and students. The Journal welcomes original research articles, book reviews, commentaries, correspondence, review articles, technical notes, short communications, case study, books, thesis and dissertation relevant to the fields of Agricultural Science, Ayurved, Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Botany, Chemistry, Commerce, Computer Science, Economics, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Food Science, Geology, Geography, History, Horticulture, Library &amp; Information Science, Linguistics, Literature, Management Studies, Mathematics, Medical Sciences, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Nursing, Pharmacy, Physics, Social Science, Zoology. All research papers submitted to the journal will be double blind peer reviewed referred by members of the editorial board.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;Indexed</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;<strong>International Journal of Innovative Knowledge Concepts (IJIKC)</strong> is included in different indexing agencies, <strong><a href="https://scholar.google.co.in/scholar?q=%22International+Journal+of+Innovative+Knowledge+Concepts%22&amp;btnG=&amp;hl=en&amp;as_sdt=0%2C5">Google Scholar</a></strong>, <a href="http://www.base-search.net/Search/Results?lookfor=International+Journal+of+Innovative+Knowledge+Concepts&amp;type=all&amp;oaboost=1&amp;ling=1&amp;name=&amp;thes=&amp;refid=dcresen&amp;newsearch=1"><strong>BASE - Bielefeld Academic Search Engine,</strong></a> Directory of Research Journal Indexing<strong> etc.</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sonhira Publication, Pune, India en-US International Journal of Innovative Knowledge Concepts 2454-2415 <p>Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the Publisher. The Editors reserve the right to edit or otherwise alter all contributions, but authors will receive proofs for approval before publication.</p> <p>Copyrights for articles published in International Journal of Innovative Knowledge Concepts are retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.</p> Root To Fruit (4): A Life Cycle Theory Of Sorting Algorithms http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/1930 <p>Sorting functionality identified as one of the significant functionality which computer has to perform. sorting algorithms gives solutions to the sorting problems. The nature and implementation of sorting algorithms change problem to problem[1]. In result, plenty of the sorting algorithms adds in the computing domain every after technological cycle. Due to which domain makes rich in the count but all the sorting algorithms invented are not useful at the same time. Therefore it is required to study the sorting algorithms by the life cycle approach. The presented new dimension of study will help to decide the application value or usability of the particular sorting algorithms in the computing.</p> Pramod M. Kadam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 01 03 Slum Development In Gurugram: Issues & Strategies http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/1983 <p>The slum is often used to describe informal settlements within cities that have inadequate housing and miserable living conditions. They are often overcrowded, with many people crammed into very small living spaces. Slums are not a new phenomenon. They have been a part of the history of almost all cities, particularly during the phase of urbanisation and industrialisation. Census of India 2011 reveals that countries urban population in 2011 as 377.1 million i.e. 31.16 % of countries population which is projected to double and reach 600 million by the year 2030. Urbanisation is the centre of economic growth. According to Central Statistics Office (CSO) estimates that from 1970-71 to 1999-00 urban India, GDP share increased from 38% to 52% and mid-term eleventh five-year plan estimates 2009-10 urban India GDP share at 62-63% which is projected to rise 75% by 2030-31. While urban centres were the key place for economic development, there is a more extensive section of city or town which lives in misery especially urban slums who were bypassed in this economic growth. According to 61<sup>st</sup> round data of NSSO urban population registered an increase of 44 lakhs from 1993-94 to 2004-05 and according to Press Note from Planning Commission, 2012 Urban poor population in 2009-10 were 76 million. This increasing population in urban centres of the country lead to economic disparity leading to over-crowding, unsanitary condition, lack of essential amenities like sanitation, drinking water, education, waste management etc. and low living status. As according to the census of India 2001 and 2011, the total population of India changes from 238.4 to 1210.5 million from 1901 to 2011 which is almost five times increase in population. Rural population increased from 212.6 to 833.4 million from 1901 to 2011 which is 3.92 times increase from 1901 while the increase in the urban population varies from 25.8 to 377.1 million which is 14.6 times of 1901 urban population. Thus, census data suggest a huge increase in urban population in the last century. The decadal change in urban population and slum population from1981 to 2011, the data has been taken from census of India 2001 and 2011 from data it is evident that with increase in urban population there is increase in slum population from 1981 to 2011 urban population registered 2.4 times increase in population and slum population registered 2.34 times increase in population. It suggests that urbanisation does not only includes the growth of society with all facilities and a high standard of living, but it shows the same rate of increment in the population living in misery. In Gurugram (Haryana), the reason for slum formation is very much apparent, i.e. unfavourable agricultural changes, low employment and prospects in rural India. The solution of slum problem and their improvement does not lie standalone in transferring slum- dwellers into the multistoried building, but it needs an overall growth of slum people in term of every aspect of their social, economic and healthy life. In Gurugram, slum development needs an inclusive growth where public and private player work together more effectively and flexibly.</p> Harcharan Singh Virender Singh Khyalia ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 04 15 Role of Annie Mascarene in the Freedom Movement in Travancore http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2033 <p>Travancore was the southernmost native state of British India and comprised the present day lands of the southern part of Kerala and Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu. The state courageously fought for responsible government in Travancore without caste, creed or sex.&nbsp; The condition of women was more deplorable. Not even a single section of women occupied a favourable position then. Even their existence was neglected. They were confined to the four walls of their own home. At this juncture, Annie Mascarene entered into Travancore Politics ignoring all the social taboos inflicted upon women. She was an active Travancore State Congress leader who stood for the liberation of women both from colonial hegemony and traditional patriarchy. She reached into the forefront of the movement by suffering a lot of difficulties. She devoted her life for rendering services to the country.</p> Rajitha T. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 16 21 Study of Tulsi Kwath As A De-Sloughing Agent In Dushtavrana http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2034 <p><em>&nbsp;The wound is referred as a Vrana inAyurveda,.TheAcharyas have described the every aspect of this disease in detail and their effort is exactly very similar to modern description available today in the modern medicine or surgical science. Acharya Sushruta mentioned two types of Vrana i.e. 1)Neeja&nbsp; 2)Agantuja. He also mentioned another two types are 1)ShuddhaVrana 2)Dushta Vrana. These are caused due to Vatadi Dosha prakopa ,Aghata ,Abhichara ,Abhishapa etc. Acharya Shushruta described the treatment for Dushtvrana,ShashtiUpakramas.VranaDhavan is one of them. As it is easy method of treatment and affordable to every patient ,the present study was planned to evaluate efficacy of TulsiKwathDhavan in comparison with proven drug i.e. EUSOL bath in Dushtvrana.</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 60 patients were taken for the research work and were divided into 2 groups 1) Trial group and 2) control group. 30 patients were chosen for each group. In group A,TulsikwathDhavan was given and in group B,EUSOL bath was given as a treatment. Patients were observed for 14 days with alternate day follow up till Desloughing of wound.i.e.ShuddhaVranaAvastha.Significant reduction in all symptoms were found in Trial and Control group.. In the present study, total 60 patients were selected, which is a satisfactory size in a short term research work based on which we can draw following conclusion</em><em>.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Tulsikwath has significant desloughing action on dushtvrana.</em></strong><em>As it is easily available to anywhere and affordable to everyone, it is cost effective.</em></p> Rutuja Ramdas Abhang Bharat Rokade ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 22 28 Central Concepts of Automata Theory http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2035 <p>Automata theory is theoretical computer science automata theory deals with how the computer or any abstract machine solve the given problem or accept/reject the given strings using an algorithm. There is mathematics behind these algorithmThis paper also covers basic concepts of theory of automata, formal languages and computation. The automata can helpus in creating new aspect of technology which can help us for the automation of every machine. It also can help us in building some nee software for designing checking digital circuits that have finite number of distinct states. This paper also gives illustration on how&nbsp; &nbsp;automata works and changes its state form one to another.</p> Divya Baliga B ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 29 32 Study on Utilization of Web based Educational Resources among College Students of Union Territory of Lakshadweep http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2038 <p>The transition of education 2.0 to education 3.0 necessitates more integration of advanced educational technology especially in higher education.&nbsp; The present study explores the access and utilization of latest internet resources among college students of Lakshadweep.&nbsp; A survey method is used for conducting the study. The population of the study is arts and science students who pursuing various courses in Calicut University center at Kadmat and Andrott, Union Territory of Lakshadweep. The sample selected for the study is 118 arts and science college students who are studying in Calicut University Center at Kadmat and Andrott in Lakshadweep. The objectives of the study was to find out the utilization of web resources like educational blogs and wiki resources, access to digital libraries, synchronous and asynchronous discussion and collaboration platforms, social media and m- learning resources among arts and science students.&nbsp; The tool for the study is Inventory for utilization of online educational resources which is developed by the researcher. It is a four point scale having 20 items and the range of the scoring of tool is 0-60. The tool assess the access and utilization level of college students regarding educational blogs and wiki resources, educational uses of the social media like Facebook, whatsapp and YouTube , access to online interactive classes, m-learning and general awareness regarding web resources for education. The statistical technique used for analyzing the data are, percentage, analysis, mean, standard deviation and t-test. It is found that 90% students greatly depended upon print materials than online learning resources. The access and utilization of online interactive classes are below 1% and only 22 % of students use social media like Facebook, Whatsapp, and YouTube etc. for educational purposes. It is found that there is significant statistical difference in getting access and utilization of web resources based on gender and stream of subject among college students in Lakshadweep. The study discusses in the light of findings, some needed educational policy frameworks to enhance the web technology mediated teaching and learning in Lakshadweep.</p> Abdunnazar P.T. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 33 36 Multiple Fissions: A History of Kerala Congress in Kerala http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2042 <p>The real causes for the foundation of the regional party called Kerala Congress in Kerala goes back to the 1960 elections to the Kerala Legislative Assembly and the formation of the government in the aftermath. Christian–<em>Ezhava </em>tussle in the party and the government paved way for rising dissenting voices in the Congress party unit in Kerala. Alleged ill treatment of the Congress leaders towards Christian and <em>Nair</em> leaders made the dissenting leaders to come out of the party and to form a new party called Kerala Congress which was hoped to emerge as a powerful regional party in Kerala like in the neighbouring State of Tamil Nadu. Instead of being an alternative to the Indian National Congress and CPI (M), the two major political parties in Kerala, the party was split into in to several pieces over the years. Party leaders were engaged in the race for power and nepotism which paved way for constant rebellion and splits in the party.</p> Sujin Babu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 37 46 A Temporal Analysis of Population Growth & Its Associated Problems- A Case Study of Darjeeling District, West Bengal http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2043 <p>The growth of population implies the change in number of the inhabitants of a territory during a specific period of time. Continuous growth of population exerts pressure upon the economy of a society and the limited resources of any region. During the last few decades the district Darjeeling has witnessed tremendous growth of population. As a result, there is a great demand for goods and other resources. Itcreates considerable pressure on the society by making technological advances. It contributes over exploitation of natural resources.This paper attempts to evaluate the temporal analysis of population growth and highlights the associated problems regarding economic and environmental due to this growth. In this present case study the dimensions of population growth has been taken into account including population density, rural urban growth, subdivision wise population growth etc. The paper concludes with some feasible solutions to check the unparalleledgrowth of population in Darjeeling district.</p> Debarati Chowdhury ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 47 54 Plight of Women Domestic Workers in Bangalore: A Sociological Study http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2044 <p><em>Domestic work is one of the age-old occupations in the world which provides employment for millions.</em><em> Usually it includes all kinds of household chores such as cleaning, laundry, cooking, shopping, swabbing, scrubbing, gardening, babysitting and care of the elderly. It constitutes one of the major single sectors where especially a large number of women are employed. For a long time during the 20<sup>th</sup> century, it was expected that the technological progress would eliminate the need for assistance from human beings in households. But, today, at the threshold of the 21st century, the number of domestic workers have increased. Under these circumstances, the present paper aims at exploring the status of women domestic workers in Bangalore. Data collected as part of an ICSSR sponsored research project completed by the author has been used for developing the present paper.</em></p> L.T. Om Prakash ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 55 62 Study of Physicochemical Parameters of Hill Streams in Monsoon and Post Monsoon season in Patan Tehsil, District Satara (M. S.) India http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2046 <p>Hill streams in the Patan Tehsil District Satara are located in the Western Ghats. The study area is occupied with many seasonal aquatic habitats surrounded by forest and paddy fields. However very little attentions have been paid on the limnology of such seasonal aquatic habitats of hilly areas. Assessment of limnological parameters are significant to determine the ecological status of such water habitats. In present investigation the limnological parameters include temperature, pH, turbidity, total dissolve solid (TDS), total hardness, alkalinity, chlorides, dissolved oxygen (DO), and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The water quality parameters were studied for the period of six months from July 2018 to December 2018 that is monsoon and post monsoon season. The variations recorded are correlated with the anthropogenic activities and surrounding ecological habitats. Moreover the present study representing the scientific record of physicochemical parameters of aquatic habitats of hilly areas.</p> A.R. Padule V.D. Gaikwad I.F. Pailwan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 63 69 Sports Culture in India: A Gateway for Excellence in Higher Education http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2052 <p>The German Philosopher Eugen Fink has remarked <em>“Play is an oasis of happiness in the desert of so called serious life”.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The history of sports and games is a part of the history of man as a social animal, his interrelations with other individuals and groups, his civilization and culture and specially his play.Game, defined in the oxford dictionary <em>“is a form of competition activity or sport played according to rules.”</em> The Merriam Webster dictionary defines sport <em>“as something to amuse oneself.”</em> India is the second most populous country in the world after China with more than 1.35 billion people. After having such a vast population, India’s performance in sports is not satisfactory after the independence. Moreover, India has a rich tradition of sports and physical fitness from its Vedic period. The epics of Ramayana and Mahabharata extolled the competitive success of their heroes in physical activities. With such a rich heritage of sports, today the youth of India can achieve excellence in higher education. Time to time many promotional schemes for sports are proposed, developed, executed and monitored by the Indian Government. Recently, the importance of sports and physical fitness has got the attention of the people and bureaucrats in India.</p> Anupma Garg ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 70 74 AN INTERNAL ASSESSMENT ENHANCING QUALITY OF EDUCATION http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2053 <p>The assessment is the process by which one attempts to measure the quality and quantity of learning and teaching, using various assessment techniques, like assignment, projects, continuous assessment, and objective type tests etc. Educational evaluation is quantitative and qualitative assessment and value judgment; internal assessment can also be helpful. Reliable assessment is possible only when the marks of the internal assessment are taken to account. There must be a regular and systematic internal assessment during the course of teaching-learning process. Pupil’s progress in learning can be evaluated with the help of internal assessment programme. Thus internal assessment improves the teaching-learning process it self.</p> <p>Internal assessment is focused on continuous evaluation of students. Bringing about commonality in assessment procedure by adopt a common tool for assessment. Bringing in transparency in assessment procedure that both student and teacher are accounted for the common case. Periodicity in assessment must be maintained. Adopt holistic approach in assessment procedure.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; All test score are best estimates and help in decision making’s, the decisions may be instructional decisions, grading decisions, diagnostic decisions, selection and placement decisions, counseling and guidance decision, curriculum and administrative policy decision. Hence assessment invariably helps in decision-making procedure. ‘The success of internal assessment depends upon teacher’s sincerity, honesty and integrity.</p> Dandinker Suryakant ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 75 77 The Journey Of Form To Formless Through The Message Of Sufism & Tagorian Songs http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2055 <p>Abstract : -<br> I am not from the East or the West<br> I am not Christian or Jew or Muslim.<br> I am not Hindu, Buddhist, Sufi, or Zen.<br> I do not belong to any established religion<br> or any cultural system.<br> I am neither the body nor the soul,<br> For I belong to Divine Soul of my Beloved.. <br> - Rumi<br>Sufism confirms the knowledge of Oneness, harmony &amp; love with the absolute. It says if one has to be united with the formless, he has to destroy the idea of himself or self identity &amp; his ego, and only then he can be united with ‘The One’ who has no form so formless. This is a journey of individual consciousness to cosmic consciousness. Rabindranath Tagore said the same thing through some philosophical words of one of his song, which says<br> Come to me in forms varied &amp; various,<br> In fragrances, colors &amp; songs.<br> … …<br> Come in my joys &amp; sorrows,<br> In all the mysteries, in daily chores,<br> Even when all the activities end,<br> Come to me in forms varied &amp; various. <br>There is a lot of harmony between the ideology of Sufism &amp; Tagore’s vision. Here in this paper I would like to draw a harmony line among this two with the thought of forms &amp; formless.</p> Tanusweta Chattopadhyay ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 78 81 Kolb’s Experiential Learning Cycle: A new approach for performing any creative task http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2057 <p>Experience is the best medium for generating knowledge. Meaningful learning happens when knowledge is created through the transformation of experiences. Concrete experiences, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization &amp; active experimentation are the four fundamentals of Kolb’s experiential learning may be a relevant approach in this case. The interpretation of a specific phenomenon varies from person to person. Therefore, there might be a chance to emerge different kinds of ideas which leads to creativity.</p> <p>Our modern society is very much technology driven. We more or less get addicted by this e-world. For this there is no opportunity to generate imagination and knowledge based on active experimentation. The provision of hands on activities in the classroom facilitates generation of new ideas and which leads the possibility to give birth the gateway of creative thinking.</p> K.N. Chattopadhyay ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 82 84 A Review On The Synthesis Of Pentacoordinated Organosilicon Compounds http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2058 <p>Hypercoordinated silicon compounds are mainly prepared by the addition reaction of nucleophilic anion or neutral reagents with tetravalent silicon derivatives respectively to anionic or neutral complexes and by the nucleophilic substitution of organosilane. This paper reviews the synthesis of penta-coordinated organosilicon compounds.</p> Priya Duggal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 85 95 Violations of Child Rights in Meghalaya: A Study of Jaintia Hills http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2059 <p>Children, our future generation deserve to be protected and supported. A healthy society is one where children enjoy every right provided to them. These rights are important for the fullest development of their personalities. Legal instruments at the international as well as national level prevail, but there are reports of serious violation of these rights. The paper tries to focus on the prevalence of child workers in Meghalaya particularly in Jaintia Hills District of Meghalaya.</p> Elizabeth Kharkongor ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 96 100 Scientific Interpretation of Respiratory System Elucidated in Ayurveda http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2062 <p>With root elimination is the treatment principle followed to cure each and every disease. These roots are entitled as <em>srotas</em> in <em>Ayurveda</em> and to follow this path physician must keep the knowledge about the <em>srotas</em> related to the disease. Respiratory ailments have been correlated with the <em>pranavaha srotas</em> in <em>Ayurveda</em>. The <em>pranavaha srotas</em> have been studied and discussed at first revealing its vitality and significance. <em>Pranavaha srotas</em> are named so for carrying <em>Prana </em>within them, where <em>prana</em> refers to <em>prana vayu</em>. These channels stand with gravity because they are related not only with respiratory system but also with the alimentary tract, cardiovascular and nervous systems. Before understanding the pathology and curing the ailments of Pranavaha srotas, one must know the concept about anatomy and physiology of these channels. Thus, this article laid emphasis on unveiling the concept of <em>pranavaha srotas</em> through opinions of different ancient scholars. Besides this, the concept of its two <em>mula</em> has been explored, along with symptoms of vitiation of these channels and their correlation with various systems.</p> Hirdesh Kumari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 101 105 Social Institution: Problems and Issues (In the context of Indian marriages institution) http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2063 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Since humans are social creatures, they are used to living in the group. Humans have created social organizations through a very deep thought to fulfill their various needs. The social system is also saved and can easily be done as well. Such social institutions have changed over time and changes have changed in the structure and function of the organization as well, but humans do not drop quickly because Traditions dear to her. At the same time, it has to be forced to accept new as per the demand of time. For such reasons there are problems in social institutions. As a social organization, in the present article, discusses issues raised with the change in marriage organization.</p> Bhanu l Patel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 106 109 Effect Of Core Stability Exercises In Patients With Unilateral Osteoarthritis Of Knee http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2064 <p>Osteoarthritis”(OA) of knee, a degenerative condition with an increasing incidence is one of the leading causes of chronic disability reported in elderly individuals .It affects the entire joint including mainly the cartilage, bone, menisci, neural tissue and the ligaments surrounding it. The affected joint show eroded cartilage leading to extensive pain and restricted movements. Clinical features of knee OA may include pain, stiffened joints along with muscle weakness and impaired quality of life. Literature supports that there is altered pelvic-hip biomechanics and impaired lumbopelvic-hip postural stability and core stability during functional activities have been reported in patellofemoral pain syndrome and patellofemoral joint OA. Due to limited research available in this field and a need to establish supporting evidence has led to the conductance of this study. Hence the need of the study is to identify the effectiveness of core stability exercises on pain, stiffness and quality of life in OA knee individuals. <strong>Materials and methodology: </strong>A pre post experimental study was conducted at Dr.D.Y.Patil College Of physiotherapy and OPD pimpri,Pune. 30 patients with unilateral medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis of knee. The patients received hot pack application before the exercise and cold pack after the treatment protocol, the exercise training included three types of exercises i.e. static abdominal contractions, pelvic bridging and abdominal crunches. The participants were assessed using KOOS questionnaire and VAS scale pre and post the treatment procedure. <strong>Results: </strong>there was statistically significant difference in KOOS questionnaire Score and VAS scale post the intervention with p&lt;0.05. Conclusion: The study concludes that the core stability exercises alone are effective in reducing pain and improving physical function in unilateral medial tibiofemoral joint OA knee patients.</p> Abha Khisty Nida Kazi Tushar .Palekar Trupti Siddapur Rucha Chaudhari Rucha Rajapurkar Shweta Ingale ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 110 121 A Mobile Adhoc Network Environment: An Introduction http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2067 <p>Mobile adhoc network (MANET)s are having an important impact on networks. The key concentration is given to aspects of networking system. Moreover the centers are more variable towards mobile adhoc network MANET system with innovative ideas and suggestions. The prime objective of this paper is to create a stronger association between system and elements of the network. This paper also explains the evaluation of DSR protocol as the routing scenario in an environment of simulation.</p> Kavita Srivastava ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 122 124 Farmers Satisfaction towards Cultivation and Marketing of Cotton: A Study in http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2068 <p>Cotton production in India is at cross roads for the past few years. Till recently it was the hybrid that was at the focus but the era of genetically modified cotton has arrived.&nbsp; This study has analysed the economic impact of Farmers Satisfaction towards Cultivation and Marketing of Cotton: A Study in Annur Taluk, Coimbatore District. The study is based on empirical study with 200 farmers.</p> A. Saravanakumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 125 134 Poverty, Gender and Quality of Life: a deciphering needs of Earlier to resolve http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2069 <p>India had unbeaten experience in reduction of poverty but we could not vouchsafe this on the level of quality of life. It is because of India’s improvement in Human development report. It had not been considered as much in the value of Human development report from 2011-13 rather than past. India had its rank 127 in Gender inequality index and the value was 0.563 for 2013 and 132 in Gender Development index with the range of Medium Human Development in both.&nbsp; So the present article makes an attempt to valid the general question as to how the effect of poverty would register differences between women and men on their quality of life. The gender development only runs in the track of academic alone and it not only influences the quality of life of women and men only but also affects the prosperity of the society also. The rate of poverty among rural women was higher than rural men and the most of the poor in developing and developed nations were women. Moreover the economic changes mostly influenced the role of women and men and their behaviour to attain their expectations. So the effect of poverty had been emerged as a factor to influence the role of gender. It urges us for finding the root of making differences between women and men by the effect of poverty to improve the quality of life especially within the households. .</p> R. Dhamotharan, ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-21 2019-05-21 7 5 135 138 The Notion of Umanglais amongst the Meiteis of Manipur: An Analysis http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2071 <p><em>The paper tries to criticize the oversimplified way of employing the term ‘Umanglais’ as a generic term to denote all the pre-Hindu deities worshipped by the Meiteis. It argues that using it as an umbrella term is conceptually flawed and in fact, such as treatment misinterprets the essence of the categorization of deities in the pre-Hindu belief system in which ‘space’ plays an important role. With the help of the festival of Lai Haraoba, the paper attempts to manifest that Umanglais represent only those deities which are worshipped in spaces outside their residential premises (in the public space) participated by a larger collectivity of people, which in itself exemplifies that Umanglais are different from those deities worshipped in other spaces, more specifically, the household deities, worshipped in their private spaces by the families concerned. </em></p> Oinam Ronnie Chanu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 139 143 An Unrecognised Gender Gains Recognition http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2072 <p>The&nbsp;<em>Hijra</em>&nbsp;or Eunuch refers to an individual who is transsexual or transgender. This group occupies the lower end of the Indian social hierarchy. Eunuchs can be emasculated men, non-emasculated men and intersexed persons,who have the physiological qualities of both sexes. The Supreme Court’s ruling in favour of a ‘Third Gender’, on 15th April, 2014, finally recognized the&nbsp;<em>Hijras</em>&nbsp;as legal citizens of India with the right to vote. A population count of the transgenders was impossible due to lack of recognition. According to a report in the&nbsp;<em>Times of India</em>&nbsp;on 30 May, 2014, the ‘third gender’ counts for 4.9 lakhs of Indian population. The transgender activists believe that the figures are inflated, although they are elated at the official recognition of the alternate genders.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>The&nbsp;<em>Hijras</em>&nbsp;have been denied their rights as promised in the Indian Constitution which incorporates certain articles, not followed meticulously until the Supreme Court ruling on 15 April, 2014, that they themselves could enjoy equal opportunities in education, employment etc.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The Lok Sabha has passed the Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill, 2016. It has also passed the Trafficking of persons (Prevention, Protection and Rehabilitation) Bill, 2018. Both these Bills are pending&nbsp; consideration in the Rajya Sabha, though the transgender community is not happy with the above Bills.</p> <p>&nbsp;The&nbsp;<em>Hijras</em>&nbsp;face a multiplicity of problems. They are denied various civic amenities and confront discriminations in the fields of education, employment and in other walks of life. It may be stated that a more sympathetic approach towards the ‘Third Gender’ can draw them out of their predicament and contribute positively towards society.</p> Swagata Ghosh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 144 151 Synchronising Quantitative and Qualitative Technological Expansion for Calibrating Quality Research Culture in Education http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2073 <p>Information technology has invaded almost all spheres of human activity.&nbsp; Academic research is experiencing a high-tech makeover, as well, and it matters more than most of us know.&nbsp; Undoubtedly, it is a fact that the technological innovations in the field of research reduce the manual labor and time constraints of the researchers and makes the research activities easier. This easiness due to technological advancement attracts many young scholars to enter into the fields of research since they get support in all stages of their research. There are different technologies for collecting data, reviewing the related literature and analyzing the data.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This paper attempts to explore how the innovative technological practices affect the quantity as well as the quality of the researcher and research, especially the quality dilution in the research in terms of data collection as well as data analysis and interpretation and even research writing. These questions require young researchers critically about the ethical issues concerned with the research related technologies. Therefore, this article analyzes what is currently being done with the research process in education and also other disciplines with or without technology use, and how these affect the self-development of the researcher and quality of research.</p> M.N. Mohamedunni Alias Musthafa Rini E Stephen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 152 157 Socio-Economic Condition and Environmental Degradation of Urban Slums-A Case Study of Balurghat Municipality http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2076 <p>The continuous increase of India’s urban population give rise to the unprecedented growth of slums. Expanding urbanisation is exerting pressure on the provision of basic amenities and housing conditions which act as a triggering factor for growing Slum, a challenge for the governments around the developing countries. The existing slums of Balurghat Municipality and its present socio economic conditions as well as environmental degradation have been discussed in this paper. Out of 34 slums Chhinamasta Colony and Atrai colony of Balurghat Municipality has been chosen for the case study. Particular care is given to their environmental conditions especially sources of drinking water, sanitation facilities, waste disposal site, health status and so on. The main reason for the present study is that sprawling of slums is the biggest problems in any urban area. The slum dwellers often crowded in precarious locations which are acute denial of basic amenities. Thus if a proper management can be carried out Balurghat will achieve significant success in improving the dilapidated slums environmental conditions and improvement of the towns further operations.</p> Subham Dey Sarkar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 158 169 Ict Integrated Co-Operative Learning In Accountancy Teaching -A Status Study http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2077 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;Information Communication and Technology (ICT) is considered as an efficient way for teaching any subject through co-operative learning. Recent studies emphasize that the computer can play an important role in a teaching surroundings based on co-operative learning strategy. Accountancy as a subject at higher secondary level is considered as difficult subject for most of the students. The pedagogical strategies adopted by the teacher may be one of the reasons for these difficulties. The present study is an attempt to find out the current practices of teachers while teaching accountancy subject and their various practices used. The sample consisted of 25 higher secondary commerce teachers in Kannur District. The Survey method was adopted for the study. Questionnaire regarding the use of ICT was used for the data collection to find out the ICT usage in Accountancy teaching. The result of the present study shows that use of ICT in accountancy classroom is average level and it depends up on the subject matter.</p> M.P.V. Jothi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 170 173 A Study of Awareness, Implementation and Challenges of Right to Education Act, 2009 in Schools of Delhi http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2082 <p><em>Free and Compulsory Education was guaranteed to the children of age group 6-14 years by the Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act 2009. The Act provides a justiciable legal framework that enables all children in the age group of 6-14 years free and compulsory admission, attendance and completion of elementary education.&nbsp; </em><em>In the present research study the status of awareness and understanding of provisions of RTE Act, its implementation, challenges and suggestions amongst teachers, principals, SMC members, parents and NGO workers in Municipal Corporation Primary Schools of Delhi, has been tried to explore. The data was collected from 24 Schools of Delhi, including 120 teachers, 24 Principals, 24 SMC members and 48 parents. The findings of the research showed a wide gap between what was expected to be done and what has been done so far.</em></p> Charu Sethi Alka Muddgal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 176 181 Relationship of Spiritual Intelligence (SI) To Quality Of Life (QOL) in College Teachers http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2086 <p>Spiritual intelligence now is viewed as one of the multiple intelligences that humans possess. As defined, it is the ability to take wide and compassionate actions without disturbing inner and outer peace despite of the circumstances that one may face. Spiritual Intelligence exists as potential in each of us but like any intelligence it must be developed.&nbsp; It is the knowledge of self, universal awareness, ego mastery and high spiritual presence. Spirituality is the belief in “something bigger than me” which is a Source of creation – and a desire to be in connection with that Source. Spirituality in simple terms is a positive way of personal life.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Human beings are also seen to be constantly pushing themselves to improve their quality of life. Qualities of life being inclusive of subjective well-being like contentment as well as the objective and tangible parameters of well-being like financial security, good physical health, good surroundings, etc.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Positive psychological attributes, such as engagement, meaning, hope, resilience, optimism, happiness, flow, etc. have a potential to influence one’s spiritual intelligence and are reported by researches to be highly correlated with Quality of Life. Therefore, this study is an effort to understand spiritual intelligence and its relation to quality of life in one of the most powerful professions- teaching.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Guwahati has recently seen a boom in the number of technical colleges and a lot of students opt for vocational courses at the undergraduate level. This study aims to investigate the relationship between spiritual intelligence of the teachers with their quality of life. College teachers (N=166) belonging to colleges that offer general courses and professional courses were taken for the study. The tools used in the present study are the Integrated Spiritual Intelligence Scale (ISIS) by Amram and Dryer (2008) and Quality of Life Scale (QOLS) by Burckhardt (2003). Scores were run on SPSS 20 for statistical treatment. Results in the present study indicate that there is a significant difference in Spiritual Intelligence of teachers teaching in general colleges and teachers teaching in technical colleges. There was no significant difference found in the quality of life of both the groups of teachers but positive correlation between Spiritual Intelligence and Quality of life was found for both categories of teachers, i.e., teachers teaching in general colleges and teachers teaching in technical colleges.</p> Bidita Das Indranee Phookan Borooah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 182 188 Enumeration of Springs in Buggavanka Watershed, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India. http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2087 <p><em>&nbsp;“Water” is one of the five basic elements of life out of <strong>pancha bhuta </strong>i.e. air, water, earth, fire and sky on the earth is the most essential element of life. Its availability is an essential component in socioeconomic development and poverty reduction (UNESCO-WWAP 2006). The demand for water is increasing in geometric progression all along the population growth (Gupta and Deshpande, 2004). Water on Earth goes through a gigantic Hydrological cycle of conversion from liquid to gaseous form by evaporation and coming down again to Earth as rainfall. Such water in that cycle appears as spring, is one of the important components for a many surface waters. These springs in that appear form a stream on such stream in the present study area is called Buggavanka. “Buggavanka” is a seasonal tributary to Pennar river basin, one of the major south Indian rivers. “Bugga” stands for “Spring” and “Vanka” for “Stream” in vernacular language Telugu. </em></p> <p><em>Classic definition of spring according to Meinzer (1923- 48) is “A spring is a place where, without the agency of man, water flows from a rock or soil upon the land or into a body of surface water”. In the present paper an effort is made to enumerate the existing, near to extinct and extinct springs within the watershed of the Buggavanka stream, in Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India. Geospatial technology formed the basis for the geotagging of the identified and explored springs in the study area, the tools employed in geospatial data processing made the study in a reconnaissance.</em></p> <p><em>Watershed is a geohydrological unit where the water drains into a common single outlet. Such watershed boundary is delineated around the Buggavanka stream with an effort to bring the study with ecological, demographic and holistic approaches. The main idea of this study is to geotag the spring locations and create the database for future studies to augment the water discharge in the yet to die springs in watershed management perspective. The field visits and survey revealed many historical and cultural but are abstract in nature. However it emphasized for the detailed geohydrogical study and participatory approach to bring back the glory of water flow as per the people living within the Buggavanka watershed.</em></p> M. Kamraju ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 189 195 Impacts of Brand Name on Consumer Buying Behavior – A Study of Theoretical Framework with Special Reference to Smart Phone in India http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2091 <p><em>This article reveals the concept of the&nbsp; brand name&nbsp; and how the brand name impacts on the consumers buying behavior in purchasing of smart phone. Brand Name plays a very important role in deciding the products in the mind of customers. Everyone wants to purchase branded products because it created a positive image in customer’s&nbsp; mind. The main objective of this paper is to study the impacts of brand name on consumers buying behavior while purchasing of smart phone. The analysis of impacts of a brand name on consumers is totally based on&nbsp; a literature review that previous study was done by someone else in the field of branding.</em><em> The present study of impact of brand name is totally&nbsp; based on the&nbsp; secondary data&nbsp; and it was collected from&nbsp; the different secondary sources likes internet, unpublished records, government report, various bulletins, newspaper and different magazines. The implementation the result of this study will definitely solve the problem of corporate when deciding and launching the&nbsp; branded products in the markets. </em></p> Vivek Upadhyay ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 196 199 Emergence of Activity-Based Approach http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2094 <p>The future of a country depends on its education system and every education system aimed at to develop its nationals in a way through which they can survive in any condition and lead a healthy life. Recently education system of India started giving more importance on learner friendly curriculum and thereby started giving more importance on activity based approach. In an education system, teachers are playing an important role. Teachers are responsible for maintaining and creating an effective learning environment and thereby achieve its instructional goals (Küçüker (Tunçer), (2004). The authors started reviewing different papers in order to understand the history of activity based approach. During the review process the authors became aware with the fact that no one discuss clearly about the history of activity based approach. So in this paper the authors aimed at to give a brief idea about the history of activity based approach in the context of India. Secondary sources were used for this study and it is purely a qualitative research where content analysis and meta-analysis were used in this study.</p> Pranjal Das Nil Ratan Roy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 200 208 Diversity of Rhizpsphere Mycoflora of Alangium Salvifolium (L.F.) Wang. http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2095 <p>Total fifteen species belonging to nine genera of fungi were isolated from rhizosphere of <em>Alangium salvifolium</em> (L.f.) Wang. and identified on the basis of morphological characters. The mycoflora was isolated by using serial dilution method on potato dextrose agar medium supplemented by suitable antibiotics such as streptomycin. The most common fungi among them namely <em>Alternaria alternate</em><em>, </em><em>Aspergillus brevipes,</em> <em>A. niger, A. tamarii</em><em>, </em><em>A. terreus, A. ustus, Fusarium </em><em>sp., </em><em>F. solani, Mucor circinelloides, M. microsporeus, </em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>Penicillium frequentans,</em> <em>Phoma glomerata</em><em>, </em><em>Rhizopus stolonifer</em><em>, </em><em>Taloromyces funiculosus</em> and <em>Trichoderma harzianum</em> were isolated and identified. The <em>Aspergillus tamarii</em> has dominant fungal species showed highest number of fungal colonies (17), percent incidence (19.10%). <em>Talaromyces funiculosus</em> showed lowest number of fungal colonies (2), percent incidence (2.24%) as compared to the other rhizospheric fungi of composite rhizosphere sample of the test medicinal plant.</p> Kunal Turukmane Shrirang Bodke ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 209 213 Effect of stress on Nurses Job Performance in Hospitals: A Study. http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2148 <p>The medical profession is the noble profession; they are helping others to get relief from the problem. The Nurses those who are working in the hospital serve or coordinate with doctor and the patient. The doctor who is giving treatment but the nurses who are taking full care of the patient. The nurses those who are working in the hospital are facing different types of issues like job satisfaction, promotion, family problem, work pressure, patients’ problem and etc. Because of this the nurses facing stress problem. The stress is both physical and mental. It is also classified in to two types like positive stress and negative stress. The negative stress again classified in to acute stress and chronic stress. The stress plays important role in performing the duty. In this paper the author tried to find out causes, consequences, types of stresses</p> V. Chitra N. Murugeswari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 214 219 Assessment of organizational experiences of Auxiliary Nurse Midwives working in Sub-center of Pune district- A descriptive study http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2174 <p><strong>Background : </strong>A qualitative study by using semi structured questionnaire to conduct in depth interview (Audio taped interview). . Research begin here by looking at ANM’s descriptive experiences interacting with organizational environment. So the study was planned to assess organizational experiences of Auxiliary Nurse Midwives working in Sub-center of Pune district.</p> <p><strong>Methodology : </strong>A qualitative study - a pilot surveys covering all Sub-centers come under Wagholi PHC contacted 10 ANMs. Data is collected by using a semi-structured questionnaire to conduct in depth interview (Audio taped interview) the quantitative data is analyzed in percentage and frequencies. <strong>Results :</strong>&nbsp; Out of the total ANMs&nbsp; 61.33% were reported that post of ANM's are vacant since long time (inadequate man power), 46 % were reported space/building and physical infrastructure problems to conduct clinics and 78% do not have tap water , 78% were forced to work from comfortable environment to insecure environment without support . 40 percent of the service providers were reported about electricity and water supply problem at the sub-centers and Anganwadi centers. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: It is concluded that ANMs should secure their values and beliefs sound knowledge and practices. Organization should see comfort and wellbeing of ANMs also.</p> Rajashree Korake ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 220 223 जनपद सुलतानपुर (उ.प्र.) में शस्य वैविध्‍य - एक भौगोलिक विष्‍लेषण http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2040 <p>जनपद सुलतानपुर (उ.प्र.) में शस्य वैविध्‍य - एक भौगोलिक विष्‍लेषण</p> Vishal Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 224 228 मराठवाडयातील जिल्‍हानिहाय लोकसंख्‍या लिंगगुणोत्‍तर व शैक्षणिक गुणवत्‍तेचा तुलनात्‍मक अभ्‍यास http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2060 <p>मराठवाडयातील&nbsp; जिल्‍हानिहाय लोकसंख्‍या&nbsp; लिंगगुणोत्‍तर व शैक्षणिक गुणवत्‍तेचा तुलनात्‍मक अभ्‍यास</p> Mahesh Prabhakar Ratnaparkhi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 229 234 मराठी नियतकालिक – संकल्पना आणि कार्य – एक आढावा http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2164 <p><u>मराठी नियतकालिक – संकल्‍पना आणि कार्य – एक आढावा </u></p> Suvarna Khodade ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 235 237 A Study to Assess Cardiac Response Indices inFood Crop Cultivation Task in West Bengal: Possible Implications of Climate Change http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2039 <p>Climate change producing a significant impact on the several sector of the society. And increasing temperature particularlyin the ambient temperature is a serious concern for the human health also. The crop cultivators perform different task for prolonged period of time under very hot and humid environment. <strong>Objective</strong>: In this backdrop the present study has been undertaken to find out the cardiac response status in male food crop cultivators (age range 24-30 years) during ‘Boro’ paddy cultivating time. <strong>Methods</strong>: Physical and physiological parameters were recorded. Dry bulb temperature, wet bulb temperature was also recorded during the working time. Strain indiceswerefound out. <strong>Results</strong>: Undesirableworking environmental situation making the task arduous for the food crop cultivators particularly during reaping and threshing.</p> Ayan Chatterjee Neepa Banerjee Sandipan Chatterjee Surjani Chatterjee Shankarashis Mukherjee ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 238 243 An Overview of Human Resource Management (HRM) Systems and Policies in Indian ites-BPO Industry http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2242 <p><em>This study introduces a review of the Human Resource Management (HRM) frameworks and strategies in the Indian ITES-BPO industry. The current writing contains couple of experimental investigations led in India that feature the idea of HRM frameworks significant to the ITES–BPO division and a great part of the writing that is accessible on the Indian ITES-BPO industry talks just about the ceaseless issue of high whittling down rates of the business. Numerous Indian business visionaries, and particularly the Indian government, understand the significance of the change made by the ITES-BPO division in the nation, and consequently, are finding a way to cultivate it. The paper concludes that there is an urgent need of authentic deliberations on different human matters in Indian BPO industry.&nbsp;&nbsp; </em></p> Behzad Pagheh S.N. Borhade ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 244 247 Amitav Ghosh’s Countdown: A Post –Colonial Analysis http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2098 <p>The non-fiction of Amitav Ghosh is like his fiction which is analysed on the post-colonial perspectives as these writings deal with the problems of India arise out of the colonial rules. Ghosh was primarily a journalist and was writing columns in <em>The India Express</em>. Apart from that he is a historian to fictionalize history in his novels rendering a touch of research. In the present paper Ghosh’s <em>Countdown</em> published just after the India’s Pokharan nuclear test in 1998 which deeply influenced Indo-Pak relation. The writer analyses the problems of the test the connection of economy and international relation of India.</p> Salila Samal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 248 249 Different Solar energy tracking apparatus:-Review http://ijikc.co.in/index.php/ijikc/article/view/2078 <p>In order to construct solar energy concentrator one should keep in mind that earth is continuously rotating, a system of tracking the sun each day of the year from time of sunrise and time of sunset as well as sun's orientation i.e. sun's declination varies each day basis. Solar energy collector must also rotate in sun's direction. Many different types and designs of solar cookers are available in market but still solar cookers is not being used by common man on a large scale in India. In this paper designs of different solar energy tracking apparatus are revisited.</p> Susan John J. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 7 5 174 175