International Journal of Innovative Knowledge Concepts <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <strong>Welcome to IJIKC</strong></p> <p><strong>International Journal of Innovative Knowledge Concepts (IJIKC)</strong> is approved by UGC and <strong>monthly </strong>published in English, Hindi &amp; Marathi for scholars, practitioners, and students. The Journal welcomes original research articles, book reviews, commentaries, correspondence, review articles, technical notes, short communications, case study, books, thesis and dissertation relevant to the fields of Agricultural Science, Ayurved, Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Botany, Chemistry, Commerce, Computer Science, Economics, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Food Science, Geology, Geography, History, Horticulture, Library &amp; Information Science, Linguistics, Literature, Management Studies, Mathematics, Medical Sciences, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Nursing, Pharmacy, Physics, Social Science, Zoology. All research papers submitted to the journal will be double blind peer reviewed referred by members of the editorial board.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;Indexed</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;<strong>International Journal of Innovative Knowledge Concepts (IJIKC)</strong> is included in different indexing agencies, <strong><a href=";btnG=&amp;hl=en&amp;as_sdt=0%2C5">Google Scholar</a></strong>, <a href=";type=all&amp;oaboost=1&amp;ling=1&amp;name=&amp;thes=&amp;refid=dcresen&amp;newsearch=1"><strong>BASE - Bielefeld Academic Search Engine,</strong></a> Directory of Research Journal Indexing<strong> etc.</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sonhira Publication, Pune, India en-US International Journal of Innovative Knowledge Concepts 2454-2415 <p>Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the Publisher. The Editors reserve the right to edit or otherwise alter all contributions, but authors will receive proofs for approval before publication.</p> <p>Copyrights for articles published in International Journal of Innovative Knowledge Concepts are retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.</p> An Empirical Analysis of Debt Burden in Rural Areas of Punjab <p><em>Since 1980s the state of Punjab has lost its economic leadership among the states and steadily slipped behind to other states. After the 90’s, the GDP growth of Punjab has been lower than the national average. Agriculture is experiencing a declining growth rate in Punjab. &nbsp;Being the main experimental state of Green Revolution among Indian states, Punjab is no more profitable agriculture and it suffering both economic and social crisis. Profit margin is continuously falling with high cost of production which pushes the Punjab’s farmers into debt trap. In the present study, an attempt has made to look into the indebtedness among rural households living in Hoshiarpur district. The analysis has found that more than four-fifth of the sampled households in Hoshiarpur district are under burden of indebtedness. It has been observed that an average family in rural areas of Hoshiarpur district has taken more than 50 per cent of total loans from institutional sources. In case of non-institutional sources, an average household from the sample has taken higher percentage of loans from commission agents. Out of total loans, an average household has taken higher percentage of total loans for productive purposes.&nbsp; About 45 per cent of total loans are taken at the rate of interest falling between 0 to 10 per cent per annum rate of interest. </em><em>An average household pays average interest rate of 13.52 per cent per annum to different sources in Hoshiarpur district. An average household pays higher interest rate for unproductive purposes than for productive purposes.</em></p> Sukhdev Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-27 2019-01-27 7 1 01 09 A Comparative Study of Short-Term Sale Forecasting using Holt-Winter Exponential, Traditional Exponential and Winexpo Indices <p>This article provides a comparative study on forecast procedures using traditional exponential, Holt-Winter exponential and Winexpo Indices. The overall sale value of a grocery shop has been predicted from the observed surveyed time series data of sale. This study proposes a new forecasting technique Winexpo developed using Traditional Exponential Smoothing and Holt-Winter Smoothing techniques in forecasting of sales. Systematic development of forecasting expressions for Winexpo from traditional exponential and Holt-Winter exponential smoothing are presented. Whenever we estimate the forecasting and trend using traditional exponential smoothing and Holt-Winter exponential smoothing result significantly deviates. In case of accuracy assessment of both the models we have high level of MAPE, MAD, MPE and RMSE values. Now we are looking for the minimization of this deviation of forecasting and deriving a new Winexpo model using Holt-Winter and Traditional Exponential Smoothing which is essentially capable in this deviation minimization. This index is enough to forecast both in long-range and short range time frame.</p> Shrinwantu Raha Shasanka Kumar Gayen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-27 2019-01-27 7 1 10 14 Ayurvedic Health Tourism in Trivandrum District <p>Ayurvedic Health / Medical tourism is a booming mche tourism market in the tourism industry. The main reason for the increasing trend is the cost of treatment, long waiting time, less insurance coverage in developed countries and the attitude of people to spend holidays in a quality manner with the aim of improving health. The study is conducted in Trivandrum district. The objective of the study to the method of ayurvedic treatment in Kerala and to identify the problems of Ayurvedic tourism in Thiruvananthapuram district. The study is mainly based on primary and secondary data. Primary data were collected using interview schedules from 50 customers in Trivandrum. Secondary data were collected from books, journal brouchers of various institutions, websites, news papers etc.</p> Ezreth P. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-27 2019-01-27 7 1 15 18 Eco-friendly solid acidic oxides as substitutional to sulfuric acid in the liquid phase nitration of toluene <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Nitration of toluene by using ZrO<sub>2</sub>/MoO<sub>3</sub>/SiO<sub>2</sub> (ZMS) as a catalyst with dilute nitric acid (50%) in green conditions were investigated. Catalysts with different composition were synthesised by sol-gel method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDX). the catalysts showed strong acidity, may responsible for higher catalytic activity in nitration. The effects of different parameters on nitration of toluene were tested, which include their molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time, and catalyst amount, the nitration of toluene gave high conversion up to 99% with good selectivity. Reaction was environment friendly due to free from solvent and sulfuric acid.</p> Amal A. Muftah Sharada P Dagade ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-27 2019-01-27 7 1 19 27 A Study to Analyze HR practices for the Nursing Auxiliary in Private Hospitals <p>Globalization has had a positive impact on all the segments and the healthcare industry is no exception to that. The healthcare industry in India is estimated to grow 16-17% from US$ 61.79 billion in 2017 to US$ 132.84 billion by the year 2022. With the increasing per capita income and enhanced awareness about one’s health, the expenditure on healthcare has augmented in the recent past. The public sector which operates through the Primary Health Care centers are not well developed with respect to technology, service quality, facilities and availability of skilled manpower. This puts an increased burden on the private healthcare sector and all its resources. Human resource management is crucial for every organization to survive and unfortunately HRM in the healthcare industry is more exigent than any other sector. Through this study, the researcher wants to explore the HR practices adopted by the private hospitals in Pune for the employees and the Nursing Auxiliary in particular. The researcher conducted a study of small private hospitals in Pune city to understand their HR policies. It was observed that these hospitals carried out the traditional HR functions of recruitment, selection, training, general administration and manpower management. After studying the current situation the researcher has made certain suggestions which will help all the small private hospitals to overcome their HR challenges.</p> Bharatbhushan Sankaye Sonali Khurjekar B.U. Sankaye ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-27 2019-01-27 7 1 28 33 Impact of Private Tuition on Student Achievement <p>Global expansions of private tutoring and its implications have been studied, raised concerns and recommended that governments need to formulate regulations and monitor its implementation. The impact of private tutoring on student learning has also been examined in different studies. The social, economic and educational implications of private tuition deserve a closer look by researchers and policymakers for addressing the concerns. The present study attempts to examine the impact of private tuition on the achievements of students in West Bengal, India. Achievement of 284 class IX students, of which 185 took private tuition in all subjects and 99 did not take private tuition were used from the dataset collected in a survey conducted by the SCERT and found that in 'Second language' and 'Mathematics', no benefit accrued even after taking additional support from private tuition and the girls and rural students spend more time in private tuition.</p> Ankita Dey Rathindranath De ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-27 2019-01-27 7 1 34 42 Functional Properties of Lime Treated Sweet Corn Flour <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This study was undertaken to assess the physical properties of sweet corn flour and evaluate their functional characteristics of lime treated sweet corn flour. The sweet corn was brought from local market, Salem, Tamilnadu. The sweet corn was thoroughly sorted, washed, blanched, soaked, drained and sundries by using lime water and milled into flour. Non-lime treated flour was consider as control flour. These samples were thereafter subjected to evaluation of functional properties.&nbsp; The results revealed that there was significant effect on the functional properties. The study showed that the flour from sweet corn had higher nutrient content and better functional properties making it a potential ingredients in baking products, school children snacks, extruded snacks and complementary/weaning foods formulations.</p> M Arthy S Parameshwari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-27 2019-01-27 7 1 43 47 Emerging Trends In Education-Fiction to Reality <p>This paper is designed to show the effect of emerging trends in education. The pure essence of traditional teaching is enhances by the modern trends. In this modern era learning is more interesting with the application of emerging trends. Experimentation, innovation, project works help students to bring out their hidden talents. In this time of globalization where modern technologies are making education easy to achieve, less time consuming and interesting and less expensive. With the application of emerging trends the new education system is much more collaborative, democratic and even personalized. Student’s interest, student’s desire, student’s needs and behavior became the first and foremost priority. Stereotype education system is knocked off by the new innovation and research based education system. A straight and simple but more effective way of interaction is emerging between educator and learner. Moreover this emerging trends providing a vivid impact on student’s behavior. The students are enriching their social duties, leadership strength, decision making abilities and so on. Emerging trends is much more error free and scientific where no such biasness is present. The emerging trends are challenging people quality to enrich their methods, processes and retrieve all feedback.</p> Iswar Chandra Malik Swapanadip Sarkar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-27 2019-01-27 7 1 48 54 Trophic State Index determination and its spatial variation in Vellayani Lake, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala – a study using GIS Techniques <p>Vellayani Lake is the fresh water lake in Thiruvananthapuram district. It is also the second largest freshwater lake and one of the three rain-fed fresh water lakes in Kerala. The waters of the lake are mainly used for drinking and irrigational purposes. Lakes are very sensitive ecosystems and their eutrophication is a major threat. Eutrophication can occur naturally and by anthropogenic activity on the environment. Carlson Trophic State Index (CTSI) gives an idea about the Trophic condition of a lake. This study attempts to assess Trophic State Index using chlorophyll-a, total phosphate and Secchi disk depth. Nitrogen and phosphorus are the limiting factors of the water bodies, hence increased concentrations results in increased plant growth, followed by increases subsequent Trophic levels. The current status of Vellayani Lake ranges from eutrophic to hypereutrophic. Further, the tool of GIS was used for mapping the spatial variation in the TSI values, which helps in assessing the extent and causes of qualitative degradation in the Vellayani Lake.</p> Neena P.T. Smitha Ashok V. Arya Unnikrishnan S U ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-27 2019-01-27 7 1 55 60 Users’ Studies in University Libraries: A Study with Special Reference to SNDT Women’s University Library <p>This paper examines the background of users’ studies in university libraries, a study with special reference to SNDT Women’s University. The study highlights the importance of users’ studies at university library. This paper seeks to understand how users know about library resource and information. The results of the study confirm the findings of previous studies and add new information about the expectations and satisfaction of users. This paper also discusses about users' opinions and problems of users’ in using library resources.</p> M.S. Bangar B.M. Panage ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-27 2019-01-27 7 1 61 69 Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Before and After Economic Reform in India <p><em>The relationship between economic development and environmental quality has been a biggest issue at the global level because Economic activities are continuously leads to environmental degradation. Due to decrease environmental quality, air pollution is increased day by day specially in developing countries. Industrialization, urbanization, transport and other many causes are responsible for air pollution specially greenhouse gases which are creating global warming, negative health impact and other problems. Kyoto protocol has been taken many challenges to controlling greenhouse gases and climate change. But in developing nations this is continuously rising with increasing economic growth. Therefore, this paper examines the issues and challenges of CO2 emissions, energy and economic growth before and after economic reform in India. </em></p> Vandana Ahirwar Ravindra Sah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-27 2019-01-27 7 1 70 74 Family Relationships and Critical Thinking skills as predictors of Vocational Identity among Undergraduates <p>In today’s world the identity of any individual is inextricably interwoven with one’s vocation to a large extent. This is especially important for undergraduate students who are on the threshold of establishing their own identity in terms of their occupational or vocational identity to step into the world of work and carve their place in the society. For the establishment of this identity to take place, the family as well as critical thinking on the part of the individual play a vital role since choosing a vocation or occupation involves meticulous thought, care and planning. The family plays a vital role because apart from financial capital and human capital, social capital in the form of parent child relationships and interactions, support networks aid and assist the child as a student in establishing one’s vocational identity. Due to lack of research in this area in the Indian context this study focuses on understanding how critical thinking and a congenial family environment influence the development of a stable vocational identity among undergraduates. The study is correlational in nature. Significant correlation was found to exist between family relationships and critical thinking, vocational identity of undergraduates. The findings of this study have important implications for career counselling where family members should be involved in the process as important stakeholders.</p> Samson A. Rajeswari K ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-27 2019-01-27 7 1 75 80 Demonetisation and Electronic Modes of Payment <p>The speech delivered by Mr. Narendra Modi on the night of 8<sup>th</sup> November 2016 took everyone by surprise as came the blow of demonetization of high value currency notes of Rs. 500 and Rs.1000. Although government justified this step as a weapon in the battle against corruption, black money, fake currency and terrorism, the debate is still on if, this ‘Mahayagna’ or the ‘ grand sacrifice for cleansing our country’ is actually a ‘Masterstroke’ or a ‘Blunder’. This paper, however, analyses the impact of demonetization on the various electronic modes of payment i.e.&nbsp; RTGS, NACH, IMPS, NEFT, PPI, Credit Cards, Debit Cards and Mobile Banking. Paired sample t-test has been applied to check the difference between the usage of the digital modes of payment, both volume and value of transaction wise before and after demonetization. Period from April,2015 to October,2015 has been taken as pre-demonetization period and from November,2016 to May,2018 as post-demonetization period. The data for the same has been collected from RBI bulletins (Payment System Indicators). The results showed that not only was the increase in both the volume and value of transaction in all the modes of electronic payment significant, the effect size (Cohen's d) was also quite large.</p> Zeenia Singh Ahluwalia Rajinder Kaur ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-27 2019-01-27 7 1 81 85 An Analytic Study of Strategies to Bridge Learning Gaps in Delhi Government Schools <p>History of the educational development of India is very rich, but the data obtained in ASAR, U-DISE and NAS are putting a question mark to this notion. At present education system of India is undergoing through a transition phase. Many students are even unable to decode their own text. This scenario is putting a big question mark on the attainment of sustainable development. Among the seventeen goals and targets specified by UN that are expected to be achieved by 2030, one is ‘Quality Education’. But if majority of school going children are unable to read their own text books then how can one think of achieving quality education. In this direction, Delhi Government has taken many initiatives to bridge the learning gaps of students like ‘Reading Campaign’, ‘Differential Teaching’, ‘Learning Processes’ and ‘Mission Buniyaad’. In this article, work has been done to analyze the role of different strategies to bridge the learning gaps like what made Reading Campaign a successful mission, whether fundamental skills of students are improved by Mission Buniyaad and effectiveness of the role of MentorTeachers.</p> Neeta Rani Joginder Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-27 2019-01-27 7 1 86 91 A Field Research on Traditional Jewellery of kullu (Himachal Pradesh) <p><em>&nbsp;India is known through its wealthy traditional heritage of folk culture and art. Himachal Pradesh is one of the richest and distinct type of tradition in which a lot of discrepancies can be seen. In terms of traditional ornaments, kullu district has one of the oldest practice in himachal. In the present study, different types of jewelleries of kullu and their design process has been discussed.</em></p> Sahil Sharma Purnendu Sharma Aarushi Pathania ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-27 2019-01-27 7 1 92 95 Change in the Socio-Economic Life of the Tea Garden Labors in New Lands Tea Garden, Kumargram, Alipurduar District, West Bengal <p>Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly used in almost every house in the world. It's produced in the form of plantation farming. Many countries especially countries in South-East Asia like India, Sri Lanka, China etc earn their highest revenue from tea. Tea now has become one of the principal industries for the above mentioned countries. It has generated unnumbered jobs for the common people living in those countries. In fact the socio economic condition of the rural areas of those countries is gradually changing due to these tea industries. Tea industry requires labor at every stage of its work .Without labor not a single tea plant can survive as no baby can survive without mother .It's including the processing and tea packaging of tea involves a large-scale employment. In this context the local economy of Alipurduar district much depends on tea industry. But the condition of the tea garden workers was not well. They are always deprived by their proprietors and their authority. This work attempts to focus on the life of these labors and a number of changes that have taken place in their socio economic life of Newlands Tea Estate workers Kumargram , Alipurduar District.</p> Ashok Majumder Arup Kr Saha Sankar Mondal Arpita Saha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-29 2019-01-29 7 1 96 104 Attitude of LIS professionals towards application of ICT in the library with special reference to LIS professionals of Higher Educational Institutions of Shimoga and Davanagere districts, Karnataka state: A study <p>The paper aims to know the attitudes of LIS Professionals of Higher Educational Institutions of Shimoga and Davanagere districts, Karnataka state, towards the applications of Information and Communication Technologies in their libraries. The study explains about the demographic features of the Library and Information Science professionals working in HEIs of Shimoga and Davnagere districts of Karnataka State. The study analyzed the attitudes of LIS professionals towards ICTs application in their libraries on seven factors with designation wise. With the help of &nbsp;SPSS software package, the Chi-Square test has been applied for the testing of the association between LIS professionals of different designation and ICT applications in their libraries.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Nagaraja Shastry G M B.R. Gadagin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-27 2019-01-27 7 1 105 112 Land Use/Land Cover Mapping Of Sub-Upper Krishna Basin, India Using Space Inputs <p>Mapping of land use/land cover (LULC<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1">[1]</a>) of Sub-upper Krishna basin (SUKB<a href="#_ftn2" name="_ftnref2">[2]</a>), Maharashtra state of India was attempted in this study. It contains of a major tributary of Krishna River which originates near Mahabaleshwar. This study was undertaken prior to hydrological modelling of the basin to map the variations in LULC so as to understand the impact of different LULC classes on hydrological regime. Landsat satellite images of years 1999 and 2016 of same season i.e. pre-monsoon were utilized. Supervised classification technique along with Maximum Likelihood Classification (MLC<a href="#_ftn3" name="_ftnref3">[3]</a>) algorithm was used to classify the images and Geographic Information System (GIS<a href="#_ftn4" name="_ftnref4">[4]</a>) was used to display the final results of the study. An accuracy assessment report of classified images was generated using error matrix which included producer, user, and overall accuracies of output and Kappa statistic. The result displayed a Kappa coefficient of 0.80 and 0.78 for 1999 and 2016 respectively which were in a good agreement with ground reality. The analysis showed that fallow land was converted to cropland to a great extent; wasteland to fallow land and grassland in few parts of the basin from 1999 to 2016. The positive change witnessed was the increase in forest area of the basin in 2016, and an interesting observation was that the area of water body did not show a significant increase during seventeen years of time span despite of new reservoirs constructed in the basin.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1">[1]</a> Land use/Land cover</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref2" name="_ftn2">[2]</a> Sub-upper Krishna Basin</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref3" name="_ftn3">[3]</a> Maximum Likelihood Classification</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref4" name="_ftn4">[4]</a> Geographic Information System</p> Avinash S. Ashtekar Mohammed-Aslam M.A. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-27 2019-01-27 7 1 113 122 Personal and Marital Adjustment of Childless Couples: A Psychosocial Study <p>Childlessness is a universal problem. Particularly in India it affects adjustment of childless couple. It leads to anxiety, frustration, nervousness, depression, loneliness, helplessness, hopelessness, etc. After reviewing the literature it is found that, adjustment of couples is adversely related to childlessness. To understand emotional and psychological problems of childless couple researcher surveyed and interviewed 100 childless couples with the help of medical practitioner and gynecologist. Personal adjustment and personal adjustment inventory and marital adjustment inventory along with semi structured interview questionnaire was used. On the basis of responses from the subject distinction is made between the problems of male subjects and female subjects and common problem separately.</p> <p>Researcher found that childlessness leads to the conflict between in-laws, harassment, hopelessness, feeling of emptiness and vacuumed, frustration, lack of hope and desire for life, restlessness, sleeplessness, ideas of committing suicide, increase emotional distance and disturbs marital life. The childlessness leads to sorrow for women and anger for men. Male turns towards addiction and women feel hopelessness and they avoid social contact. childless couples are sufferers of personal, emotional and marital adjustment problems which inturn affect their mental health adversly.</p> Digambar Darekar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-27 2019-01-27 7 1 123 130 Conceptual Interpretation and Applied Facet of Deepana and Pachana <p><em>Ayurveda</em> appraises that none of the disease can be developed without the malfunctioning of <em>Agni</em>. According to <em>Ayurveda, Agni</em> of the body, tacit in <em>pitta</em> and as <em>pitta</em> conducts <em>dahana</em> (oxidation/combustion), <em>pachana (paka)</em> or physical and / or chemical transformations like fire; it is stated as internal fire. Therefore, in every disease the principle centre of attention is <em>Agni</em> management. Any derangement in <em>Agni</em> leads to the production of <em>Ama</em>, primary cause for the outcome of all diseases.&nbsp; <em>Deepana</em> and <em>Pachana</em> is the first line treatment in demolishing these diseases. This paper is an effort to review and understand how <em>dipana</em> and <em>pachana</em> action works on <em>Agni</em> and elucidating its action on <em>ama</em> in the normal and the diseased individual.</p> Vandana Singh Arpit Shrivas Shrikant Pandey Bhuval Ram ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-27 2019-01-27 7 1 131 138 Data Mining: A Library Utility Model <p>A library is as good as its collection and its user oriented library services. Documents, Users, Services, Finances, Human resources and Space are to library what library is to an institution. Library perhaps is the only service agency that through its robust and helpful library system,&nbsp; based on tools and techniques of information and communication technology is able to satisfy the information needs of a user across the globe 24x7x365 that comes out to be 61320 hours in an year. Libraries through Data mining (DM) techniques would be able to strengthen its managerial and decision support system where data is analysed from different perspectives which in turn would provide an edge to an organisation like library to serve their clients in a better way. An attempt has been made through this conceptual paper to identify the core library areas where data mining techniques can be applied to build a stronger serviceable library system for the maximum benefit of library users.</p> Pardeep Rattan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-27 2019-01-27 7 1 145 149 A study on the phytochemical characteristics of three herbs used for post-partum care <p>This piece of research was carried out to find the phytochemical constituents of three herbs which are used as medicines for post-partum health care in the state traditionally. The herbs selected for the study were <em>Canthium paviflorum, Azima tetracantha, </em>and<em> Biophytum&nbsp; sensitivum </em>Whole plants were collected and washed and extracted using ethanol based on previous studies. The extract were subjected to analysis of tannins, phenol, flavonoids, Coumarins, alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids and glycosides and nutrients such as carbohydrates, amino acids and proteins. Those phytochemicals which could be identified were later estimated using standard procedures. The results of the analysis of the parameters are as follows: Total phenolic content in <em>A. tetracantha</em> 0 .078mg/g is higher among three plants. <em>B. sensitivum</em> has highest amount of carbohydrates (2985mg/g). Flavonoid is highest in <em>C. paviflorum</em> 33.3 mg/g. Among these three plants <em>A. tetracantha</em> has least quantity of flavonoid (13.2mg/g). Tannin is highest in <em>A. tetracantha</em> (268.57 mg/g) and lowest in <em>C. parviflorum</em> (108.57 mg/g). Highest amount of vitamin C is reported in <em>A. Tetracantha</em> (0.0073 mg/g). Glycoside content is highest in <em>B. sensitivum</em> (67.6 mg/g). <em>C. parviflorum</em> showed minimum quantity (7.96 mg/g). <em>B. sensitivum</em> showed maximum amount aminoacid among these three plants. Alkaloid content was found to be highest in <em>C. parviflorum</em> (395.06 µg/g). Saponin content was highest in <em>A. tetracantha</em> (80.63 µg/g). <em>B. sensitivum</em> showed highest amount of Terpenoids (60.5 mg/g). This shows that all the plants studied shows substantial amount of phytochemicals. These components are mostly antioxidants. They are responsible for protection from a variety of issues related to health and thus support their usage in post-partum care.</p> Divya M.U. Ayona Jayadev ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-27 2019-01-27 7 1 139 144 Correlation between Resilience and Self-efficacy of Middle School Students with Learning Difficulties <p>The studies addressing correlation between resilience and self-efficacy together in middle school students with learning difficulties were not found. Therefore, in the current study it was hypothesized that there’s no correlation between resilience and self-efficacy of students facing difficulties in learning. The Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM) and General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) was administered on 7<sup>th</sup> and 8<sup>th</sup> standard students (N=100) with learning difficulties. The results contradicted the hypothesis and suggest positive correlation (r = .464, p &lt; 0.001) between resilience and self-efficacy. To conclude, introducing programs for promoting resilient mindset at an early stage may help these students to have high sense of self-worth and face the frustrations posed by learning difficulties.</p> Sayali Deo Digambar Darekar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-27 2019-01-27 7 1 150 153 Reading Ibn Khaldun’s Social Themes in His Muqaddimah with a Special Reference to Social Organisation, Badawah and Hadarah Life, and Asabiyah <p>Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406) was one of most significant figures in the history of the Muslim world in the pre-modern period. He was born in Tunis at a time when the Muslim dynasties in North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula were fighting against each other and disintegrating into petty states. Being directly involved in the political activities, he served several Muslim rulers in different capacities ranging from diplomatic envoy to minister. Then he eventually devoted himself for scholarly life and wrote universal history of the world in seven volumes called as <em>Kitab al-Ibar</em>. The first volume, <em>Muqaddimah</em> (Prolegomena) became so famous that it overshadowed the significance of <em>Kitab al-Ibar </em>and brought him much attention particularly in the European world. In <em>Muqaddimah</em>, his profound analysis of human society and cultural development is a unique and landmark attempt on social thought. It contains brilliant reflections on the meaning, pattern, and laws of history and society. In <em>Muqaddimah</em>, he claimed to have created a new independent science, <em>Suigeneris, </em><em>Ilm al-umran</em>, or <em>Ilm al-Ijtima al-bashariy</em> translated as “Science of social organization or Civilization, or the Science of Culture” respectively whose subject matter is human social organization. Several social thinkers considered <em>Muqaddimah</em> a treatise in sociology and, accordingly, regarded Ibn Khaldun as the founder of sociology. In this paper, an attempt is made to highlight his certain social themes in <em>Muqaddimah</em>, such as social organization, <em>badawah</em> and <em>hadarah</em> life, and <em>asabiyah </em>(social feeling). Four hundred years after him, these themes were then demonstrated in the Western scholarship.</p> Sheikh Idris Ahmad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-27 2019-01-27 7 1 154 160 Electronic specific heat due to electronic polarization of As-ions Vp in Fe based superconductors <p>The study of specific heat due to electronic polarization of As-ions, V<sub>p</sub> in [LaFeAsO<sub>1-x</sub>F<sub>x</sub>] compound has been studied using Green’s function technique. Expression for specific heat has been obtained for this compound. The expression clearly indicates the dependence of transition temperature with electronic specific heat on electronic polarization of As-ions V<sub>p</sub> .The result shows specific heat jump at Tc of 2.6X10<sup>-4</sup> meV/atom-K<sup>2</sup> and for this Compound.</p> Manoj Kumar Sarita Khandka Vipul Singh Piyush Masih ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-27 2019-01-27 7 1 197 200 An in-depth study on the Kauna Grass Craft of Manipur w.r.t. Geographical Indication <p>Handicrafts reflect the cultural, natural and historical features of a region and society. The protection of Geographical Indications has, over the years, emerged as one of the most contentious Intellectual Property Right issues in the realm of the World Trade Organisation (WTO). It has gained more interest since its protection has been ensured multilaterally under the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement of the WTO. A Geographical Indication is primarily an agricultural, natural, or a manufactured product (handicrafts and industrial goods) originating from a definite geographical territory.&nbsp;Such a name conveys assurance of quality and distinctiveness, which is because of the place of its origin. The state of Manipur has a rich and culturally diverse potential for handcrafts. Handicrafts of Manipur have a unique place among the various crafts of the country due to having its own aesthetic and artistic value. Although the handicrafts industry started as traditional part-time activities in rural areas with no significant market demand over the years, it has transformed into a flourishing industry. Current trends of handicrafts are not only restricted to aesthetic or artistic value but also incorporating design and new ideas make these products into daily utility items broadening the marketability of&nbsp;such products. This paper aims at identifying factors that are likely to predict the characteristics and uniqueness of <em>kauna</em> crafts of Manipur in adopting a Geographical Indication certification.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dibyendu Bikash Datta Sougata Banerjee ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-27 2019-01-27 7 1 161 172 Illicit Drug Trafficking and Punjab <p><em>The illicit drug trafficking across the borders is a major problem, especially when the income generated from the drug trade is being used by the terrorist organizations for terror activities and other crimes all over the world. India is suffering from the similar problems due to its geographical location. Drugs, which are produced and processed in Afghanistan and Pakistan, are being illegally trafficked to India through its border belt along the states of Jammu &amp; Kashmir, Punjab, and Rajasthan. Nowadays Punjab is the prime target of drug mafia. As a result Punjab is facing major crisis, where so many youngsters are caught in the drug addiction. Economy, industrial growth, agricultural development and socio-cultural heritage of Punjab are badly affected. The present study is descriptive and analytical in nature and with the help of secondary sources it tried to figure out the contemporary challenges to the people of Punjab due to prevalence of drug abuse. In this paper we have also examined the n</em><em>exu</em><em>s between drug trafficking and terrorism.</em></p> Gurpreet Singh Jagsir Singh Brar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-27 2019-01-27 7 1 173 176 Women’s Empowerment through Education: A study of Haryana <p>Women empowerment means that ‘process of enabling women to act freely &amp; have their voice in decision making so that they may not feel inferior to men in any circumstance’. The state of Haryana is not one’s for how sex ratio in India low female literacy rate and work participation rate. In such a situation female education is the only way out. Education is the fundamental means to bring any desirable change in the society, which is an accepted fact throughout the world also. So the paper has been set to define the concept of women empowerment, to highlight the educational programs and schemes launched by the government of Haryana for women empowerment to evaluate the steps taken by the government for women empowerment government of Haryana has set up women educational Girls School, Colleges and Universities, launched multiple educational and seems to promote women empowerment but the out-comes are still not satisfactory. Sex ratio of Haryana is lower than national average, female literacy rate has improved in last decades but if has not kept pace with male literacy rate and male work participation role various factors like reserved social attitude towards women, ineffective implementation of government schemes and programs are&nbsp; responsible for situation. So it is the need of the hour to bring awareness in the society regarding importance of women contribution for the progress of Nation and stricter, efficient and effective implement of government programs and schemes.</p> Sunita Rani Rajbir Singh Dalal Vishal Saini ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-27 2019-01-27 7 1 177 180 Women Participation in Tourism: A Case Study of District Kinnaur in Himachal Pradesh <p>There are various entry points for women in tourism sector which provide employment opportunities and generate additional income which help them to reduce poverty. There are many examples where women have independently started their own business and become self independent. Through this business they tread on the path of financial independence and hone the essential skills and ameliorate their education level which in turn increases self-esteem in women thus it changes the previous scenario where women were reproved to move outside the house. The sample of 93 working women in different tourism activities has been selected randomly and data was collected through the questionnaire. To analyse the qualitative data c<sup>2 </sup>test is used. The findings of the study suggest that there is a significant relationship between the development of tourism and tourism related employment in the study area. This case study will manifest how tourism has, wittingly or unwitting, affected the women participants and the societal setup at large.</p> Neetu Sinha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-27 2019-01-27 7 1 181 187 Towards An Integrated Model for Academia- Industry Interface in Higher Education <p>: Education in the 90’s and now had transformed itself largely on paper but not shaped up to the needs of the industrial sector. A large number graduates are being churned out, however there is a supply demand gap in terms of quality .Industrial revolution today, has made the world so competitive that that industries have less time to shape graduates and then make profits. Sound higher education not only is the need of the industry, but can be related to Human Development Index (HDI) as well. This qualitative case study takes up the main purpose of understanding the nature of interface between industry and academia and its derived benefits. The focus of this research is to study the development of management graduates through increased collaborations with higher education institutes, thus strengthening the overall development of the country.</p> Radhika Khairnar Vijay Uttarwar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-27 2019-01-27 7 1 188 192 Studies on quantitative estimation and antioxidant activity of Tridax procumbens L. <p>India has got a rich biodiversity of medicinal plants which include over 2000 species. Plants are important eternal source of medicine for human heath welfare. <em>Tridax procumbens </em>L. is employed as indigenous medicine without side effects. Hence it is a valuable herbal drug yielding plant. <em>Tridax procumbens </em>L. is a herbaceous trailing weed found throughout India. <em>Tridax procumbens </em>L. is native of tropical America and has been subsequently reported from tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the world. <em>Tridax procumbens </em>L. (Family- Asteraceae), is a trailing herb with exllent medicinal value. In India it is reported as widespread weed throughout India.</p> <p>The present study has been carried by exploring total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and DPPH (Radical scavenging activity). These investigations have been under taken using the leaves of <em>Tridax procumbens </em>L. seasonal studies have also been considered for establishing these contents. Hopefully good results have been obtained during these studies which have been elaborately discussed in this paper.</p> Amol Mohan Patil ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-27 2019-01-27 7 1 193 196 Bibliometric Study of Supreme Court Cases 2011-2016 <p>This paper present a Bibliometric analysis of the journal entitled “Supreme Court Case” for the period of 2011 – 2016. The analysis cover mainly the number of article, the authorship pattern, subject wise –distribution, average number of references per articles, forms of documents cited, year wise distribution, state wise distribution of papers and etc.</p> R. Perumal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-29 2019-01-29 7 1 201 205 Predicting Survival Time of Diabetic Patients Using Machine Language and Statistical Techniques <p>Statistics and Machine Learning techniques play a vital role to analyse the information from the data. Statistical techniques analyse the qualitative relationship between the variables explicitly by hypothesis testing and Design of Experiments (equal means).When more number of variables exceed Machine Learning techniques makes minimal assumptions to create an effective model even in the presence of nonlinear interactions. Survival Analysis a statistical technique which incorporates the useful partial information from incomplete observations. This has been widely used in Medical research. To compare the accuracy and performance of both Statistical and Machine Learning techniques we applied these techniques to the Diabetic Retinopathy Patient data set and we found that more computational requirements are needed to the Machine Learning techniques and also its accuracy is less than that of the statistical methods. The empirical result in this study explained the need for unbiased ways to test the performance of predictive methods.</p> Sujatha V. Prasannadevi S. Pavai Anand G. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-27 2019-01-27 7 1 206 213 Correlation among Various Components of English Language Learning Anxiety: A study at High School Level <p>Learning a new language is not at all an easy task. Language learners usually experience anxiety, lack of confidence and nervousness while learning a new language. Many researchers have explored the fact that anxiety acts as an obstacle in successful acquisition of foreign language (Horwitz, Horwitz&amp; Cope, 1986; MacIntyre &amp; Gardner, 1994; Ohata, 2005; Williams &amp; Andrade, 2008).</p> <p>This study aimed to find out the correlations among three types of performance anxieties namely- communication apprehension, test anxiety and fear of negative evaluation. The study was carried out on 220 students of Burdwan district (105 male students and 115 female students) who were selected using stratified random sampling technique. Required data was collected using Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale. It was also aimed to find out whether gender and habitation act as a significant factor in acquiring English in classroom situation.</p> Naireeta Basu K.N. Chattopadhyay ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-27 2019-01-27 7 1 214 219 Impact of E-Learning Environment on Student Performance Using Data Mining Classification Techniques <p>Nowadays technology changes the means of education. Traditional learning take place of e-learning, which use the online as well as electronic media through learning. Those approach provides the global education for worldwide will bridge the gap between rural and urban and keeps the student updated. E-learning provides the number of courses, specialization, topics of various areas. It also provide students student online material and education facilities such as you tube, videos of lectures, material through pdf, ppts and document type. Student role is important in the learning process. Student performance mostly evaluates through the marks. E-learning environment also measure the student performance through the e-environment attributes. Student behavior analyze by the how many times the visited the e-learning environment, how many days attended sessions, checks the announcements etc. This paper analyze the e-environment aspects using data mining classification techniques.</p> Jayashri Ghadge ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-27 2019-01-27 7 1 220 223 शिक्षा का अधिकार अधिनियम 2009 मे सन्‍दर्भ में सार्वजनिक शिक्षा प्रणाली <p><u>शिक्षा&nbsp; का&nbsp; अधिकार अधिनियम 2009 मे&nbsp; सन्‍दर्भ में सार्वजनिक शिक्षा प्रणाली</u></p> Suresh Chandra `Kandpal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-27 2019-01-27 7 1 224 229 गुळ उत्‍पादकांसमोर असलेल्‍या समस्‍या <p>गुळ उत्‍पादकांसमोर असलेल्‍या समस्‍या</p> Chaitanya Suresh Bhosale ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-27 2019-01-27 7 1 230 233 शास्‍त्रीय संगीत के प्रचार- प्रसार मे रेडियो एवं टेलीविजन का योगदान <p><u>शास्‍त्रीय संगीत के प्रचार- प्रसार मे&nbsp; रेडियो एवं&nbsp; टेलीविजन का&nbsp; योगदान</u></p> Swati Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-27 2019-01-27 7 1 234 235