International Journal of Innovative Knowledge Concepts 2018-08-20T08:28:11+00:00 Mrs. Pramila M. Jamdade Open Journal Systems <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <strong>Welcome to IJIKC</strong></p> <p><strong>International Journal of Innovative Knowledge Concepts (IJIKC)</strong> is approved by UGC and <strong>monthly </strong>published in English, Hindi &amp; Marathi for scholars, practitioners, and students. The Journal welcomes original research articles, book reviews, commentaries, correspondence, review articles, technical notes, short communications, case study, books, thesis and dissertation relevant to the fields of Agricultural Science, Ayurved, Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Botany, Chemistry, Commerce, Computer Science, Economics, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Food Science, Geology, Geography, History, Horticulture, Library &amp; Information Science, Linguistics, Literature, Management Studies, Mathematics, Medical Sciences, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Nursing, Pharmacy, Physics, Social Science, Zoology. All research papers submitted to the journal will be double blind peer reviewed referred by members of the editorial board.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;Indexed</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;<strong>International Journal of Innovative Knowledge Concepts (IJIKC)</strong> is included in different indexing agencies, <strong><a href=";btnG=&amp;hl=en&amp;as_sdt=0%2C5">Google Scholar</a></strong>, <a href=";type=all&amp;oaboost=1&amp;ling=1&amp;name=&amp;thes=&amp;refid=dcresen&amp;newsearch=1"><strong>BASE - Bielefeld Academic Search Engine,</strong></a> Directory of Research Journal Indexing<strong> etc.</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Role of Kashmiri women in Agriculture Development and Allied Fields 2018-07-29T09:11:09+00:00 Firdoos Ahmad Ganie <p>The role of women in agriculture and allied activities in Kashmir are significant and positive by any standards. The earnings by farming women from agriculture and related activities are the major contributors towards annual income of families. The other income generating activities include hand knitting, embroidery and poultry searing carried out exclusively by women. The involvement of women in agriculture and allied activities is total as they are involved in almost all field and crop management operations right from field preparation of harvesting and storing of produce.</p> <p>Women were found to have leading sole in decision making with respect to agricultural inputs like selection of varieties choice of crops, live stock raising and selling surplus produce. Women since time immemorial have formed an organic component of working force in India as well as in Kashmir. They work along with male members of household in different agricultural activities. Women’s role in agricultural operations is very significant; this involvement in agriculture is besides this usual obligation of discharging domestic work.</p> <p>The studies have observed that the economic condition of the agricultural labour families is very poor and it is impossible from them to survive without the contribution made by these women towards the income of the family. The studies have pointed out that the women agricultural labourers apart from these house-hold duties contribute significantly to the income of these families.</p> 2018-07-29T03:54:46+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Understanding Socio-Cultural and Political Economy of Footwear Artisan from Medieval Period to Colonial Period 2018-07-29T09:11:09+00:00 Surinder Verma <p>Footwear is one of the important discoveries of mankind and it is an artisanal work which has given less importance over the years. In the light of less availability of material, Citing Elliot, Verse (2005) overviews that literature on footwear lacks historical and social context due to its low value (p. 89). Even the people who are engaged in footwear making particularly in India were not given importance and they often recognized as polluted and untouchables. In support of this statement Ilaiah (2009) pointed out that caste dominance had a negative inquisitive mind that looks Dalits’ footwear making business is a threat to their existence and dominance (p. 41). Even archaeological department does not give importance to footwear unlike other valuable historical artifacts (ibid, p. 89). Thus in the light of the above facts this research paper aim is to understand the socio-cultural and political aspect of footwear artisans from medieval period till pre-independence.</p> 2018-07-29T03:56:26+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tourism Industry in Kerala: Focus on Economic Contributions 2018-07-29T09:11:09+00:00 A.R. Soumya G.L. Arunjilal <p><em>Kerala is regarded as one of the destinations with the highest brand recall and named as one of the ten paradises of the world by the National Geographic Traveller. </em><em>Tourism is a vital sector of Kerala economy, attracting millions of tourists every year and providing income and employment for the state.</em><em> It brings balanced and sustainable regional growth by generating income and employment and thus contributing significantly to the State’s GDP. The state has recorded remarkable levels of growth in tourism industry in recent years</em><em>.</em><em> Contributions of tourism industry in Kerala with respect to revenue, foreign exchange earnings and employment generation are highly impressive in the state. This paper is an attempt to focus on the economic contribution of tourism industry to the Kerala economy during the past one-and-a-half decades.</em></p> 2018-07-29T03:58:13+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Comprehensive study on consistency in the performance of leading cement firms in India 2018-07-29T09:11:09+00:00 Divya Deep Singh Sanjay Kumar Garg <p>Consistency is the well-known feature to know about the performance of any cement firm. In this study, the response variable and predictors have been evaluated to identify about the consistency of cement firms. Return on Net Worth, Total Assets, and Sales is the efficient profitability ratios considered to know about the consistency. The Financial Econometric model used in the study and adopted. One-factor, Two-factor, and Three-factor model in which it is observed that the three-factor model is the best fit model. It shows that there is a linear relationship between a response variable and predictors and also found that there is a significant effect of predictors on the response variable. Here multiple regression methods used for analysis of 30 selected cement firms. The secondary data of 10 years (2006-2015) used, the data used is prowess database maintained by Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE).</p> 2018-07-29T04:00:25+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Novel idea proposal for design of compact cow dung dewatering system 2018-07-29T09:11:09+00:00 RAJESH r <p>The growing demand for organic fertilizers and increasing awareness on rooftop farming in urban cities was identified as a motivation for the design of compact cow dung dewatering system.The removal of moisture present in the cow dung makes it an effective organic fertilizer. In this work, design of compact cow dung dewatering system is proposed to separate the solid from the liquid waste at the farmer’s site in villages and to obtain moisture less organic manure. Existing cow dung dewatering machine was found to be high in cost, complex operation and not compact to fit for farmers having two to three cows. Thus in this study, four concepts were generated for dewatering the cowdung and convert into manure.</p> 2018-07-29T04:02:34+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparative Science Education and Teaching in India & West 2018-07-29T09:11:09+00:00 R.S.S Nehru <p>The Methods and the concept of approaches to Science education &amp; teaching have been derived from traditional and modern collective work on each other, for the production to the ultimate culture of science education to the mankind. Discuss on this discipline, there are various aspects that are not parallel with each other, whenever comparing these aspects within the understanding of science education itself, through the countries apart of this universe. This paper recognizes the methods and the customs of science teaching, which are from the western countries and India. The community modify in the growth of philosophies and science education make to know how regulations are contrasted to each other. Also look at the difference among foreign and Indian science teaching the approach of child involvement inside class programs, the process of instruction and learning, the follow-up of learning, the capacity of children for both philosophies, the encouragement for the students, and the bonding between the two. This paper finally has a review towards Western and Indian educators and also on the science teaching approaches of India from the views of Western along with the modifications and comments by the implementation of both opposite philosophies.</p> 2018-07-29T04:05:05+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Viewers’ Attitude towards Prominent and Subtle Product Placement 2018-07-29T09:11:09+00:00 Somiya Mehrotra Githa S. Heggde <p>Many studies are focused on product placement because it is considered as a better way to advertise products. Viewers are not able to change channels and marketers have more target audience to cover at less cost. It is seen that consumer’s attitude towards traditional advertising is becoming negative. In product placement, viewer cannot avoid commercials and the exposure towards the product. Product placement is also considered good because it leads to good brand memory, product recall and attitude. Although, researchers are still working on the proper use of product placement like whether a plot connection is superior, prominent products are more visible or subtle brands are recalled faster. In this research paper, focus has been to study the acceptance of products shown through product placement by the viewers and the weightage of prominent placement as against subtle placement. This study combines an experimental and the questionnaire design survey method based on the convenience sampling in Bengaluru region.</p> 2018-07-29T04:07:57+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Historical Significance of St. Angelo’s Fort as a Hub of Military and Commercial Function in Colonial Kannur 2018-07-29T09:11:09+00:00 Shalima M.C <p>St.Angelo’s fort has played a significant role in trade and defence.&nbsp; The fort, which is situated on the bank of the Arabian sea, was built by the Portuguese in 1505.&nbsp; The Dutch captured it in 1663 and sold it to the Arakkal Royal family in 1772. &nbsp;In 1790 the British conquered it and transformed it into one of the major military stations on the Malabar coast. At present it is being&nbsp;&nbsp; maintained and protected by the Archaeological Survey of India. This paper mainly highlights the historical importance of St. Angelo’s fort and its commercial and military functions in the colonial context.</p> 2018-07-29T04:09:36+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A study of customer satisfaction regarding e-banking services provided by banks with reference to Bank of Maharashtra 2018-07-29T09:11:09+00:00 Gauri Prabhu <p>Advancements in technology have raised the standards of living of the people. Innovations have altered the way services can be offered and have given new dimensions to the society. This is true to the banking industry also and it has been in the form of online banking, which is now replacing the traditional banking practice. Online banking refers to banking over the internet without having to visit the bank personally. This research paper studies customer satisfaction regarding e-banking services provided by banks with reference to Bank of Maharashtra. A survey was conducted to study and analyze the perception of bank customers and their satisfaction level of e- banking facilities through structured questionnaire. The findings of the study indicate that around 70% of them use e-banking services. Lack of awareness and security reasons are the main deterrents for not using e-banking services.</p> 2018-07-29T04:12:12+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Consumer Ethnocentrism an Enquiry Using Adapted Cetscale 2018-07-29T09:11:10+00:00 P.M. Vishnu <p>According to Shimp&amp; Sharma (1987), consumer ethnocentrism focuses on the responsibility and morality of purchasing foreign – made products vs. consumers loyalty towards products made in their own country. For an ethnocentric consumer, importing products from other countries is not appropriate because it is not patriotic and is detrimental to the economy and domestic employment (Yagci, 2001: Supphellen&amp;Gironhaug, 2003). The recent trends in the Indian market denote a serious growth of Indian made products. Swadeshi movement in the marketing arena calls for an assessment of consumers ethnocentric tendencies. The present study attempts to find the level of consumers ethnocentric and its association with brand preference. The extent of association between ethnocentrism and consumer decision making serves as a great tool to identify the prevailing trend in the market. This study focusing on measuring the level of consumer ethnocentrism and its relationship with socio economic variables.</p> 2018-07-29T04:14:30+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Association of Prakriti and Blood Groups of Infants in respect to Blood groups of Parents 2018-07-29T09:11:10+00:00 niraj kumar srivastava Gehlot Sangeeta Sanjay Singh B.M. Singh <p><strong>Background: </strong><em>Prakriti</em> is an enumeration of body features, internal as well as external. <em>Prakriti Dosha</em> quanta and blood groups are present in a person since birth to till death without changing. <em>Prakriti</em> and Blood Group both derived from paternal and maternal part.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> - To explore the relationship among the infants’ blood groups (A B O system), their <em>Prakriti</em> and parent’s blood groups.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods: </strong>Total 226 healthy infants of either sex were registered at 10<sup>th</sup> day of life. <em>Prakriti </em>of infants was assessed by questionnaire prepared by department of <em>Kaumarbhritya</em>/Balroga and <em>Kriya Sharira</em>. Test for blood group of parents and infants were done in clinical pathology lab of S. S. Hospital BHU.</p> <p><strong>Discussion &amp; Conclusion: </strong>In this clinical study, 100 % <em>Vata Prakriti </em>infants belonged to A blood group, in O blood group 77.77% infants have <em>Pitta Prakriti </em>belonged to O blood group, 58.07 % infants of <em>Kapha Prakriti </em>belonged to B blood group, 79.17% <em>Vata Pitta Prakriti </em>infants belonged to A blood group, 41.51% <em>Vata Kapha Prakriti</em> infants belonged to AB blood group and 72.58 % <em>Pitta Kapha Prakriti </em>infants belonged to O blood group.</p> <p>In relation to blood groups parents, when mother have A<sup>+ </sup>with different blood group of father then <em>Vata-Pitta Prakriti</em> have predominance in infants, when mother have B<sup>+ </sup>with different blood group of father then <em>Vata-Kapha </em>and<em> Pitta- Kapha Prakriti</em> infant have predominance and when mother have O<sup>+</sup> with different blood group of father then <em>Vata-Pitta</em> and <em>Pitta-Kapha Prakriti</em> infants have predominance.</p> 2018-07-29T04:34:47+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparative Analysis of Diasporic Experience of Two Diasporic Writers : V.S.Naipaul & Bharati Mukherjee 2018-07-29T09:11:10+00:00 Amanpreet Kaur <p>Diasporic experiences generate the fractured and in-between life of migrants and diasporic communities. Migrants' experiences are a blend of anxieties, uncertainities, ambivalence, insecurities and limbo. These experiences are an indivinsible part of migrants' consciousness. Migrant's consciousness is a peculair kind of sensibility towards cultural mutations which accepts and appreciates multiplicity and ambivalence. The works of Naipaul and Mukherjee exhibit many ways of becoming which they acquire from different places of their protagonists. V.S.Naipaul delves deep to bring trauma of displacement and relocation of his male protagonists while Bharati Mukherjee writes from genedered perspective.&nbsp; Assimilation strategy is the leading principle for survival of protagonists. During the process of assimilation they reproduce themselves again and again keeping in view the demands made by 'assimilation'. Mukherjee unveils the fact that the process of deliverance from identities can be a painful and vicious process. The present research paper brings forth the comparative analysis of diasporic experience of both diasporic writers -V.S.Naipaul and Bharati Mukherjee.</p> 2018-07-29T04:36:53+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Influence of native language on non-native language’s vowel duration: A Study of Nepali and Hindi speakers’ vowel duration 2018-07-29T09:11:10+00:00 BRAJESH PRIYADARSHI Anup Ghimire <p>This paper attempts to study the variation in vowel duration for native and non-native Hindi speakers and also, the influence of native Nepali language on non-native Hindi language vowel duration. The acoustic characteristics of vowel duration in Hindi words spoken by native and non-native speakers of Hindi have been compared, by segmenting the words into syllables and phonemes. The vowels /ə/, /a/, / ɪ /, / i/, /ʊ/, /u/, /e/, /ɛ/, /<a href="">o</a>/ found predominantly in Hindi, were directed for analysis. The two groups of participants, twelve in each group were involved in the study. Results indicated that variation in vowel duration for six of the vowels were quite evident in the case of native Hindi speakers as compared with the non-native Hindi speakers (native Nepali speakers); but vowels /ə/, / ɪ / and /ʊ/ did not show any significant difference in both groups. It was evidenced that Hindi is stress based and in Nepali language, both long and short vowels were pronounced predominantly as short; leading to an inference that the native Nepali speakers tend to reduce the vowel duration while speaking Hindi words.</p> 2018-07-29T04:41:25+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Adjustment During Late Adolescence And Medium Of Instruction 2018-07-29T09:11:10+00:00 Bhavana V. Kumudini Achchi <p>Adjustment is a satisfactory adaptation to the demands of day-to-day life and may be defined as a process by means of which the individual seeks to maintain psychological equilibrium and propel himself towards self enhancement. It is the outcome of the individual‘s attempt to deal with the stress and meet his needs: also his efforts to maintain harmonious relationships with the environment. Being a major concern in all developmental stages, it is of great relevance during adolescence; a period of many hormone based complex changes in the body and mind leading to emotional, physical and social maturation, so as to prepare the individual for functional independence in adult life. Adapting to the changes within themselves and to the changed expectations of the society is a major developmental task of the adolescence stage. Late adolescence and the period following, often referred to as emerging adulthood, have been noted as particularly important for setting the stage for continued development through the life span as individuals begin to make choices and engage in a variety of activities that are influential for the rest of their lives. At this age, they are exposed to a new system of education that is college set up. The present study focusses on the adjustment problems faced by the adolescent students due to change in medium of instruction and tries to explore their adjustment levels with respect to it. The study concludes highlighting intervention paradigm to deal with adolescent problems in social work point of view</p> 2018-07-29T04:46:04+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An Event Study on the Impact of Demonetization on Indian Corporate Bond Prices 2018-07-29T09:11:10+00:00 Rinku Champramary Perumalraja. R. Velmurugan PS <p><em>This paper attempts to see the reaction of corporate bond prices on the demonetization announcement by the government of India, using the existing event study methodology like calculating abnormal returns, cumulative abnormal return and cumulative average abnormal return Using easily obtainable data sets of Nifty AAA rated corporate bond Indices from NSE website. The study revealed that there is a positive effect in the long term, medium term and ultra-long term NIFTY AAA rated corporate bond indices.&nbsp; CAAR from the date of the event, that is day 0, shows positive impact on return in corporate bond indices since the happening of the event. Cross section CAAR of six different indices of both 20 days and 30 days shows that there is a decrease in return before the event indicating that the market was uninformed about the happening of such event. This is true in the case of demonetization because the announcement was surprisingly made by the Prime Minister of India on the day Zero i.e. 8/11/2016.&nbsp; This announcement immediately reflected in the corporate bond market next day where increase in return and positive effect is observed even 15 days after the event. There was positive impact on almost all the six AAA rated corporate bond indices while the positive effect was little lesser in AAA short term and AAA ultra-short term corporate bond indices.</em></p> 2018-07-29T04:48:12+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Contextualizing Prophet Muhammad’s Role as a Social Reformer 2018-07-29T09:11:10+00:00 Mohd Shafi Bhat <p><em>Islam encompasses in its inclusive teachings both the spiritual and the temporal aspects of human life. Apart from its comprehensive and holistic nature, Islamic faith is founded on the principles of primordial belief system; the first human being on earth being Adam, who besides being referred to as the first vice-gerent of God on earth was also the first Messenger of God on earth; and this process of Messengers continued up to the last messenger, Prophet Muhammad (SAW), who was a perfect Messenger-cum reformer in His life and teachings. The seventh-century Arabian society was enveloped by the corruptions of unbelief, polytheism, while diverse forms of ignorance and immoralities were prevalent in the society. People of Arabia were valorizing ancestral authority over the divine commands, they were preferring tribal customs over divinely sanctioned law. Prophet (SAW) with his penetrating vision and dynamic character, intervened to mend, resolve, and reform that disorder which was prevalent in the society at that particular time. Though Prophet transformed his community from ignorance to knowledge, from faithlessness and corruption to faithfulness and dignified community. However with the changing time and space, due to forgetfulness and other such reasons, Muslim community is always in need of reform both intellectually and socially. The guiding principle for all the times, for the pursuit of reform in Muslim community uncontestably would be the Prophetic model of reform (Islah). &nbsp;The present paper will study the contribution of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) towards social reform of his community vis-à-vis its contemporary relevance. The fundamental features and principles of Prophetic model of social reform will be highlighted which can be utilized for the transformation of humanity in general and Muslim community in particular. </em></p> 2018-07-29T04:49:41+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Challenges in Information and Communication Technology Adoption among Small and Medium Enterprises in Bengaluru 2018-07-29T09:11:10+00:00 Jacob Joseph K Elangovan N. <p>The purpose of this paper is to identify and present the challenges that Small and Medium Enterprises face in the adoption of Information and Communication Technology tools. &nbsp;Small and Medium Enterprises are not in a position to upgrade themselves to newer technologies in spite of the encouragement from the government. The reluctance to adopt new technology is very highly seen in the enterprises due to various reasons. The study has explored and presented the various factors that have affected the adoption of new technology in such firms. The methodology for the study was based on Interviews with the various stakeholders connected with Small and Medium Enterprises. The interviews were conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire and the responses are analyzed and presented here. The findings through the interviews with stakeholders also suggest the reasons for their reluctance to use information communication technology tools in their business and the ways how they could overcome the same.</p> 2018-07-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An Association between Bitcoin and Altcoins – Data Mining Approach Determining Who Moves Who 2018-07-29T09:11:10+00:00 Manminder Singh Saluja Yasmin Shaikh <p><em>In recent years the sharp uptrend in the price of Bitcoin had created a popular attraction and interest towards cryptocurrencies. The movement in Bitcoin was not in isolation. The interest generated in minds of the global investors of every category was because of a combined uptrend that was seen in the prices of cryptocurrencies across the board. The basic objectives of the research were to identify the joint movement among four major cryptocurrencies i.e. Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic and Litecoin understand their association using Frequent Pattern Mining Algorithm. While analyzing 12163 observations, the total of 43 frequent patterns &amp; 40 association rules were decoded at 60 % confidence and 8 rules were decoded at 70% confidence. The Rise in price of Bitcoin, Ethereum and Ethereum Classic were causing a rise in price of Litecoin strongly with Lift value of 1.68 with support of 1504 observations at 70% level of confidence</em></p> 2018-07-29T04:55:16+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Integration among Cryptocurrency Market – A Case of Three Major Exchanges Of Bitcoin 2018-07-29T09:11:10+00:00 Manminder Singh Saluja Surendra Malviya Wasim Ansari <p><em>Bitcoin is a digital currency, not just any digital currency but a self-regulated most popular one, that has risen from dirt to a whopping competitor to dollars in international payments in last three years. This research is being conducted to look for price formation and transmission amongst various exchanges trading Bitcoin. The data of daily closing prices of bitcoin in three major exchanges i.e. Coinbase, Bitstamp and Bitfinex exhibited unit root at I (0) and were integrated at first order. The two cointegrating vectors unveiled a existence of long run relationship between Bitfinex &amp; Coinbase and Bitfinex &amp; Bitstamp with a short term deviation of -0.1732 and -0.3469 respectively.</em></p> 2018-07-29T04:56:54+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Corruption in Russia: Tainted international image? 2018-07-29T09:11:10+00:00 Chibenthung Yanthan <p>Constructing a positive image is imperative in international relations. In this respect, Russia’s efforts to portray itself as a country aversive to corruption have been overshadowed by the practices of corruption at the state level. The emergence of Vladimir Putin was welcomed with much enthusiasm by the Russians only to be left dry and disappointed. In fact, corruption became more rooted, to the extent analysts of Russian politics termed Putin’s government as Kleptocracy. This article attempts to analyze how a new form of corruption emerged under Putin and explore what challenges Alexey Navalny known for championing anti-corruption in Russia could possibly posit to Putin’s power since with the former’s rise in the political mainstream, he has managed to organize massive anti-corruption protests in Russia lately. Can Putin manage to maintain his powerful legacy; will the younger Russian generation led by Navalny manage to dent Putin’s image, thereby destabilize his regime?</p> 2018-07-29T08:18:29+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Design Optimization of Trapezoidal Cross Section Cantilever Beam for Minimum Cross Section Area Using Genetic Algorithm 2018-07-29T09:11:10+00:00 Arvind Gothwal <p>This research is related to design a trapezoidal cross section beam for minimum area or minimum material requirement and investigation of design parameters variations with different conditions. Genetic algorithm is used to evaluate optimum results at varying load and length conditions for cantilever beam at pointed load at its end and under constraint of limited deflection. Trapezoidal section variation makes different sections like square, rectangular and triangle so this is selected. An easy approach is observed to take a section for minimum area. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2018-07-29T08:20:11+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Impact of Unplanned Vertical Urbanization on Indoor Air Quality and Health of Its Occupants 2018-07-29T09:11:10+00:00 Rakesh K. Wats Alka S Grover Aanchal Wats anchalwats1510@gmail.comm Meenu Wats <p><em>Exponentially growing population in India is putting pressure on the limited available land and to accommodate it, the only viable solution seems to raise vertical cities.Cities with tall buildings have their own positive and negative impacts on the biotic as well as abiotic factors of the particular area in specific and overall conditions in general. The most important side effects of such buildings, if not constructed onholistic and sustainable model, are localized climatic disturbances and health discomforts of their occupants, thereby slowly turning suchstructures into sick buildings. The most vulnerable victims are children, elders and all those having long term exposure to such buildings. The current study has focused on a northern state, Haryana, in India which is witnessing such haphazardly growing vertical residential as well as commercial structures and facing the degradation of not only its climate but also showing increased reports of health problems of the users of such buildings. The study was carried out in three districts of Haryana where more congregations of vertical towers is there. The study indicates that air quality of Gurugram and Faridabad is in a very bad state and 66% and 56%, respectively, their residents have reported been suffering from one or another type of health discomfort, while in Panchkula the air quality has been found to have better condition at most of its sites with about one quarter of its people (28.6%)showing health problems related to particulate pollution.</em></p> 2018-07-29T08:22:34+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment of Knowledge of Food Safety and Hygiene among Food Handlers in Cochin, Kerala, India 2018-07-29T09:11:11+00:00 Bulbin Jose Meera Raman <p>Food handlers play a very important role in food hygiene and safety because they have direct contact with foods during production, processing, distribution and preparation. Transmission of microbes causing food contamination and food poisoning. Therefore this topic merits particular attention. A survey was designed to obtain data about food handlers knowledge of hygiene and food safety during preparation, processing and handling of food. Two hundred and fourty eight food handlers from eight food service establishments such as star hotels, a/c hotels, non-a/c hotels, hospital kitchens, railway canteens, bakeries, food processing units and street vendors were involved in the study. The data were collected from the food handlers through the methods of questionnaire and analyzed using the SPSS version 12.0. In general, the respondents’ knowledge level from various food service establishments clearly shows differences between eight categories of food service establishments. The knowledge level of workers of star hotels, a/c hotels, non a/c hotels, hospital kitchens, food processing units, railway station, bakery and street vendors are different. In conclusion, amongst the eight categories food handlers of star hotels have better knowledge level than other food service establishments.</p> 2018-07-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A study on some of the contributions of Albert Girard in Algebra 2018-07-29T09:11:11+00:00 Joyce Kurian Sunny Joseph Kalayathankal <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong>Albert Girard introduced the notion of a fractional exponent, “the numerator is the power and the denominator the root” and the current notation for higher roots. He understood the geometric meaning of a negative solution to an equation. He generalized the work of Viete and considered ‘factions’, which are the elementary symmetric functions of<em> n</em> variables. He also noted the Pascal triangle of binomial coefficients. He identified the relationships that exist between the roots of an algebraic equation and the coefficients that appear in the equation itself. He found that every algebraic equation admits of as many solutions as the denomination (power) of the highest quantity indicates. He preferred arranging equations in alternating order of decreasing degree on each side of an equation. This arrangement helped him to state the relation between coefficients and roots. His hypothesis that, every polynomial equation has a number of solutions equal to its degree was his most interesting contribution.</p> 2018-07-29T08:27:55+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An overview of the major views on foundations of mathematics: 2018-07-29T09:11:11+00:00 Arun Garg <p>Mathematics is said to be language of all sciences and is commonly believed to be an objective discipline which works on some very clear laws and in which there are no chances of confusion or ambiguous results. However there are some mathematicians and philosophers who have raised concerns regarding some of the fundamental assumptions of mathematics which makes it vital for everyone engaged in these subjects, to understand its foundational issues and be aware of its inherent limitations. Philosophy and Mathematics has a long history of mutual engagement, ever since the time of early Greek thinkers. The nature of interaction between Mathematics and Philosophy has also taken many shapes and forms. However the chief philosophical challenges to Mathematics are basically from Metaphysics and Epistemology. In the matter of&nbsp; Metaphysics, the questions raised belong to existence or being of numbers, sets, points, lines, functions and other such mathematical entities which are freely used as if they have an objective identity. These questions belong to the set of problems covered under the foundations of mathematics which deals with the issue of ontological status of mathematical entities. In the matters of Epistemology, the questions raised are even more fundamental in nature and deal with the meaningfulness of mathematical statements as well as nature of mathematical truth. Since all mathematics is abstract, it can then be argued that all mathematics is a purely mental exercise. However, there are mathematicians and philosophers who do not accept these explanations and they have presented logical and structural arguments to establish the proof and certainty of mathematical facts. This paper will cover some of the issues mentioned above and attempt to provide an overview of the historical and contemporary debates dealing with the same. In the process, the endeavor will be to familiarize with the most common concerns of Philosophy of Mathematics and get a glimpse into some of the challenges that exist in resolving the same.</p> 2018-07-29T08:29:51+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An Event study on the Impact of Demonetization on the Spot and Futures Returns of Commodities Traded in MCX. 2018-07-29T09:11:11+00:00 Perumalraja. R. Velmurugan PS Rinku Champramary <p>This papers tries to contemplate the effect of demonetization on the futures and spot prices of Agri, Base metal, Bullion and Energy commodities. The study reveals that soon after the demonetization, market average return got increased in case of agri. and energy index. But decrease in market return could be observed in case of metal index. Overall, impact of demonetization is observed in spot market for all the commodities considered for the study. Whereas in the futures market, though there is an effect, it is at minimal level. Which may be due to prudent regulatory policies adopted by MCX commodity exchange with respect to futures market. The study shows that there is a significant impact in spot market for all the commodities for the short period of time. Later, the effect got reduced over long period. In case of Agri return and Bullion return, AAR got reduced after demonetization. In case of spot return of bullion and base metal during pre and post event, the average of AAR for the 10<sup>th </sup>and 25<sup>th</sup> day experienced both positive and negative impact. But 50 days after the event no impact is observed and it is almost similar to pre event period. In case of futures market also, in long term (50 days) the AAR is less compared short term (5 days), which means that only in short term there is an impact. In case of bullion and base metals the average AAR got almost similar with the pre and post event in the long term. Overall in the case of bullion and base metals in both spot and futures there is no impact of demonetization in long run.</p> 2018-07-29T08:36:57+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## International Cooperation for Search and Rescue in the Arctic Region: Challenges and Legalities 2018-07-29T09:11:11+00:00 Tasawwur Husain Zaidi Javed Zafar <p>Search and rescue is a collaborative act even at the national level. Cooperation and coordination among different agencies and organisations of the governments and the public cooperation is necessary for the success of this act. Though, Arctic is largely a barren and desolate area but many accidents and disaster have also been reported which were largely managed by individual countries. But, the region is changing now as it may be opened for navigation and exploration after few years only. The region is also experiencing increasing level of human interference and activates. These are likely to increase further in the future. All these developments indicate increasing level of risk in the region. Parts of this region are also contested by regional powers. In the absence of specific rules, regulation and terms of cooperation this contestation/competition may turn into conflict. There is also a history of cooperation among regional countries. Russia and Norway have been cooperating for SAR</p> 2018-07-29T08:39:42+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## गीता के साथ उपनिषद् और दर्शन का सम्बन्ध 2018-07-29T09:11:11+00:00 Rajesh Pramanik <p>आर्षकाव्य महाभारत के अन्तर्गत भगवतगीता तदनन्तरकाल से आजतक धर्मग्रन्थ के नाम से विशेष महत्त्वपूर्ण है। इसका सम्पूर्ण दार्शनिक दृष्टिभङ्गि उपनिषदों के आधार पर आधारित हैं। इसी दृष्टिपात से कहा जा सकता है की गीता, उपनिषद् और दर्शन वस्तुतः निष्काम एवं सकाम कर्मों के सहायता से इस जगत्-संसार के जन्म से सदा के लिए विदा पाने के मूलमन्त्र प्राचीनकाल से वर्तमान तक निबन्ध आकार से वह सब शास्त्रों में स्थापित हैं। गीता के अष्टादश अध्यायों में जिस तरह अच्यूत के उक्ति से गूढाकेश अर्जुन को संसार से मोह त्याग करने के लिए कहा है; उसी तरह वृहदारण्यक उपनिषद् के याज्ञवल्क-मैत्री संवाद में याज्ञवल्क कर्तृक सम्पत्ति की माया त्याग से परमात्मा का साक्षात्कार तथा सन्यास प्राप्ति की बातें बाताये है। यहा आध्यात्मिक दृष्टिपात के माध्यम से दार्शनिक दृष्टिपात परिलक्षित है।</p> <p>सांख्य-योगदर्शन के दार्शनिक तत्त्व भगवतगीता के दार्शनिक विचार के द्वारा विचार्य है। सांख्य में ईश्वर-तत्त्व नही है; लेकिन गीता पर ईश्वर स्थापना अत्यन्त आकृष्ट प्रतीत होता है। पुरूष एकतन्त्र तत्त्व नहीं, अपितु प्रकृति तथा ईश्वर का ही एक रुप है। सांख्यदर्शन के विषय के प्रति हमारा दृष्टिगोचर होने से समझा जा सकता है की, वहा किस प्रकार प्रकृति के समस्त अवस्थायों को एक प्रतीति के रूप में स्वीकार किया गया है; जो कि नित्यस्थायी विषयों के प्रति संकेत देता हैं, ऐसा उपलब्धमात्र का बोध होता है। चेतना रहित होने पर भी प्रकृति के कार्य को निष्प्रयोजन नहीं कहा जा सकता; और इस कार्य के प्रयोजन जीवात्मा के मोक्ष प्राप्त हेतु है। प्रकृतिरूप नाट्यभूमि में एक धार्मिक परब्रह्मसम्बन्धी तथ्य विद्यमान है। सांख्य में जैसे पुरूष और आत्मा एकतन्त्र यथार्थ सत्त्वा नहीं तथापि आनन्दस्वरूप है, क्योकि प्रकृति का स्वरूप केवल ज्ञानस्वरूप नहीं हो सकता। गीता पुरूषोत्तम तथा सर्वोपरि आत्मा की अस्तित्त्व में विश्वास करता है, लेकिन जीवात्मा के साथ परमात्मा को पृथक् भावना इसका आलोचित विषय नहीं। फिर भी जीवात्मा का स्वरूप तथा प्रकृति के साथ सम्बन्ध भगवतगीता का यह सम्पर्क सांख्यदर्शन प्रदत्त प्रकृति-पुरूष के प्रभाव को दरशाता है। मनुष्य तथा जगत्-संसार में जीवों के परलोकप्राप्ति इस विषय में प्रकृति के सात्विक, राजस, तामस से कोई पृथक् नहीं। यह एक त्रिगुणात्मक बन्धन है और इस बन्धन से छुटकारा पाने का नाम मोक्ष है। त्रिगुणात्मक गुणसमुहों को आभ्यन्तरिन अङ्ग और इन्द्रियसमुहों के भौतिक रचना का वर्णन गीता और सांख्य सदृश् उपलब्ध है। सांख्य के यौक्तिक प्रक्रिया का उल्लेख भी मिलता है। सुतरां स्पष्ट है, जैसे हमें गीता में आध्यात्मिकता और दार्शनिकता का सन्धान मिलता है; वैसे ही उपनिषद् और दर्शनशास्त्रों के अनेकांश में मिलता जुलता है। जैसे गीता, उपनिषद् और दर्शनशास्त्रों के विचारशक्ति के माध्यम से जीवों के जन्म-मृत्यु को बाधाप्राप्त करेक निजी दार्शनिक शक्ति की उद्बुद्ध से मोक्ष का पथ सुनिश्चित किया है; फिर भी उक्त भगवतगीता, उपनिषद्, दर्शनशास्त्र एक दुसरे के उपर निर्भरशील होने पर भी तिनोके भिन्न भिन्न नामानुसार ब्रह्म, परब्रह्म, परमात्मा ईश्वर तथा मोक्ष प्राप्ति की मूलमन्त्र एक है, इस विषय पर कोई भी सन्देह नहीं कर सकता।</p> 2018-07-29T08:42:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## मुस्लिम महिलाओं में आधुनिकता ( एक समाजशास्‍त्रीय अध्‍ययन) 2018-07-29T09:11:11+00:00 Tabbasum Jahan <p>मुस्लिम महिलाओं में&nbsp; आधुनिकता ( एक समाजशास्‍त्रीय अध्‍ययन) &nbsp;</p> 2018-07-29T08:44:10+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Historiography of Folklore: Exploring the Shifts in the Past Theoretical Perspectives 2018-08-20T08:28:11+00:00 Shuchi Yadav <p>Folklore as a discipline evolved over centuries, the roots of which go back to late 18<sup>th</sup> and early 19<sup>th</sup> century. While the word folklore found its genesis in Britain, the theoretical perspectives in and around folklore were situated in studying it as a communication practice of the lower class, illiterate or backward people living in England. The shift in the attitudes of the global scholarship in realizing and using folk media as a powerful research tool in studying the past and present socio-cultural practices of the communities has been interesting. This paper is an attempt therefore to explore the historiography of folklore from 18<sup>th</sup> century to 20<sup>th</sup> century. The idea is firstly to trace the shifts in the attitudes of the scholars in the past to study folklore and discern the growth of different theoretical practices adopted by the academic community in the past. Secondly, an attempt is also made to study different research methods deployed in the past to study the content and form of different genres of folklore such as folk tales, myths, poems, riddles etc. It is a theoretical study that explores 19<sup>th</sup> and 20<sup>th</sup> century monographs and texts of variety scholars with special focus on British, American and Indian academic community.</p> 2018-07-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Valorisation Of Industrial Fish Waste By Isolating Trypsin: A Review 2018-07-29T09:11:09+00:00 Charu Batav Ragini Gothalwal Manju ` Tembhre <p>The waste disposal and its judicious recycling has been a challenge since ages. The fish waste has been generated at huge scale due to annual enhancement in fish production. A large quantity of fish waste is generated from seafood processing industry and from fish market. The volume of waste produced by processing plants is calculated to be about 50% of the total processed fish. Fish waste includes fish head, fins, viscera, skin, bones, blood etc. This waste is usually dumped back which lowers the dissolved oxygen level by generating toxic by-products.&nbsp; It also contains a high load of spoilage bacteria, which acts as an attractive breeding ground for pathogens thereby poses environmental and health threat. The presence of nutritious contents in fish waste makes easier the valorisation into fishmeal, silage, fertilizer, hydrolysate, gelatin/collagen, fish oil, and enzymes.&nbsp; Though fish waste finds number of applications but valorisation of this waste to recover fish proteolytic enzyme will be more economical. The most important among these is enzyme trypsin which high catalytic activity at a wide range of pH and temperature even at low concentration. Its specificity and stability, makes it a valuable enzyme for industries. This review describes different fish trypsin extraction methods, different purification methods, fish trypsin properties, and variety of industrial applications.&nbsp;</p> 2018-07-29T04:38:58+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##