A Conceptual Link Among Goal Orientation, Adaptive Selling Behavior, Self-Efficacy and Salesperson Performance
The aim of this study is to establish a conceptual framework to predict salesperson performance. In this connection, goal orientation theory and social cognitive theory provide link between the variables included in framework. Additionally, to consult past empirical and theoretical literature, data was searched on databases like emerald, SAGE, Wiley online, Science Direct, Springer, JSTOR and Tailor & Francis. The review of past literature depicted significant relationship of Goal Orientation, Adaptive Selling Behavior and Self-Efficacy with Salesperson Performance. So, a conceptual framework is established to describe possible connection of explored variables. At the end, conclusion is drawn and limitation are discussed in order to provide the directions for future research and guideline for practitioners in this area.
Ames, C. (1992). Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of educational psychology, 84(3), 261.
Ames, C., & Archer, J. (1988). Achievement goals in the classroom: Students' learning strategies and motivation processes. Journal of educational psychology, 80(3), 260.
Azizi, S., Kodadad Hossini, H., & Roosta, A. (2014). Multi-Level Analysis of Salesperson Performance Determinants. The International Journal of Humanities, 19(4), 183-210.
Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Prantice Hall. O‟ Connel, P., Pepler, D., and Craig, W.(1999). Peer involvement in bullying: insight and challenges for intervention. Journal of Adolescence, 22, 0238.
Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37(2), 122.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social Foundation of Thought and Human Action: Prentice-Hall.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efﬁcacy: The exercise of control: New York: Freeman.
Bandura, A., & Locke, E. A. (2003). Negative self-efficacy and goal effects revisited. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(1), 87.
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of personality and social psychology, 51(6), 1173.
Bartkus, K. R., & Howell, R. D. (1999). The relative influence of achievement motivation and irritability-impatience on the selling performance of travel agents: implications of the type A behavior pattern. Journal of Travel Research, 38(2), 163-167.
Behrman, D. N., & Perreault, W. D. (1982). Measuring the performance of industrial salespersons. journal of Business Research, 10(3), 355-370.
Bell, B. S., & Kozlowski, W. (2002). Goal orientation and ability: Interactive effects on self-efficacy, performance, and knowledge. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(3), 497.
Blackshear, T., & Plank, R. (1994). The Impact of Adaptive Seiling on Sales Effectiveness Within the Pharmaceutical Industry. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 2(3), 106-125.
Brown, S. P., Jones, E., & Leigh, T. W. (2005). The attenuating effect of role overload on relationships linking self-efficacy and goal level to work performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(5), 972.
Cavazotte, F., Moreno, V., & Bernardo, J. (2013). Transformational leaders and work performance: the mediating roles of identification and self-efficacy. BAR-Brazilian Administration Review, 10(4), 490-512.
Cellar, D. F., Stuhlmacher, A. F., Young, S. K., Fisher, D. M., Adair, C. K., Haynes, S., . . . Denning, B. L. (2011). Trait goal orientation, self-regulation, and performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Business and Psychology, 26(4), 467-483.
Chai, J., Zhao, G., & Babin, B. J. (2012). An empirical study on the impact of two types of goal orientation and salesperson perceived obsolescence on adaptive selling. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 32(2), 261-273.
Chen, A., Peng, N., & Hung, K.-p. (2015). Strategic management of salespeople when promoting new products: Moderating effects of sales-related organizational psychological climate. European Journal of Marketing, 49(9/10), 1616-1644.
Chien, C.-C., & Hung, S.-T. (2008). Goal orientation, service behavior and service performance. Asia Pacific Management Review, 13(2), 513-529.
Churchill Jr, G. A., Ford, N. M., Hartley, S. W., & Walker Jr, O. C. (1985). The determinants of salesperson performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of marketing Research, 103-118.
Coutinho, S. A., & Neuman, G. (2008). A model of metacognition, achievement goal orientation, learning style and self-efficacy. Learning Environments Research, 11(2), 131-151.
Cravens, D. W., Ingram, T. N., LaForge, R. W., & Young, C. E. (1993). Behavior-based and outcome-based salesforce control systems. The Journal of marketing, 47-59.
Crothers, L. M., Hughes, T. L., & Morine, K. A. (2011). Theory and cases in school-based consultation: A resource for school psychologists, school counselors, special educators, and other mental health professionals: Routledge.
Davis, W. D., Dibrell, C., Craig, J. B., & Green, J. (2013). The effects of goal orientation and client feedback on the adaptive behaviors of family enterprise advisors. Family Business Review, 26(3), 215-234.
Donassolo, P. H., & de Matos, C. A. (2014). The predictors of sales performance: a study with wholesale sellers/Os Fatores Preditores do Desempenho de Vendas: um estudo com vendedores atacadistas/Factores predictores del desempeño en ventas: un estudio con los vendedores al por mayor. Revista Brasileira de Gestão de Negócios, 16(52), 448.
Dweck, C. S. (1986). Motivational processes affecting learning. American Psychologist, 41(10), 1040.
Dweck, C. S., & Bempechat, J. (1983). Children's theories of intelligence: Consequences for learning. Learning and motivation in the classroom, 239-256.
Dweck, C. S., & Leggett, E. L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological review, 95(2), 256.
Elliot, A. J. (1999). Approach and avoidance motivation and achievement goals. Educational psychologist, 34(3), 169-189.
Elliot, A. J., & Church, M. A. (1997). A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. Journal of personality and social psychology, 72(1), 218.
Elliot, A. J., & Thrash, T. M. (2001). Achievement goals and the hierarchical model of achievement motivation. Educational Psychology Review, 13(2), 139-156.
Elliott, A., & Harackiewicz, J. (1996). Approach and avoidance achievement goals and intrinsic motivation. Journal of personality and social psychology, 73, 171-185.
Flaherty, K. E., Arnold, T. J., & Shane Hunt, C. (2007). The influence of the selling situation on the effectiveness of control: Toward a holistic perspective. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 27(3), 221-233.
Forum, W. E. (2016). The future of jobs: Employment, skills and workforce strategy for the fourth industrial revolution.
Franke, G. R., & Park, J.-E. (2006). Salesperson adaptive selling behavior and customer orientation: a meta-analysis. Journal of marketing Research, 43(4), 693-702.
Fu, F. Q., Richards, K. A., Hughes, D. E., & Jones, E. (2010). Motivating salespeople to sell new products: The relative influence of attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy. Journal of Marketing, 74(6), 61-76.
Fu, F. Q., Richards, K. A., & Jones, E. (2009). The motivation hub: Effects of goal setting and self-efficacy on effort and new product sales. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 29(3), 277-292.
Geitz, G., Joosten-ten Brinke, D., & Kirschner, P. A. (2016). Changing learning behaviour: Self-efficacy and goal orientation in PBL groups in higher education. International Journal of Educational Research, 75, 146-158.
Gist, M. E., & Mitchell, T. R. (1992). Self-efficacy: A theoretical analysis of its determinants and malleability. Academy of Management review, 17(2), 183-211.
Gist, M. E., Schwoerer, C., & Rosen, B. (1989). Effects of alternative training methods on self-efficacy and performance in computer software training. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(6), 884.
Goebel, D. J., Deeter-Schmelz, D. R., & Kennedy, K. N. (2013). Effective Sales Management: What Do Sales People Think? Journal of Marketing Development and Competitiveness, 7(2), 11.
Gong, Y., Huang, J.-C., & Farh, J.-L. (2009). Employee learning orientation, transformational leadership, and employee creativity: The mediating role of employee creative self-efficacy. Academy of management journal, 52(4), 765-778.
Grant, K., & Cravens, D. W. (1996). Examining sales force performance in organizations that use behavior-based sales management processes. Industrial Marketing Management, 25(5), 361-371.
Harris, E. G., Mowen, J. C., & Brown, T. J. (2005). Re-examining salesperson goal orientations: personality influencers, customer orientation, and work satisfaction. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 33(1), 19-35.
Hartline, M. D., & Ferrell, O. C. (1996). The management of customer-contact service employees: an empirical investigation. The Journal of marketing, 52-70.
Hirst, G., Van Knippenberg, D., Chen, C.-h., & Sacramento, C. A. (2011). How does bureaucracy impact individual creativity? A cross-level investigation of team contextual influences on goal orientation–creativity relationships. Academy of management journal, 54(3), 624-641.
Huang, C. (2016). Achievement goals and self-efficacy: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 19, 119-137.
Jaramillo, F., & Grisaffe, D. B. (2009). Does customer orientation impact objective sales performance? Insights from a longitudinal model in direct selling. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 29(2), 167-178.
Jaramillo, F., & Mulki, J. P. (2008). Sales effort: The intertwined roles of the leader, customers, and the salesperson. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 28(1), 37-51.
Jelinek, R., Ahearne, M., Mathieu, J., & Schillewaert, N. (2006). A longitudinal examination of individual, organizational, and contextual factors on sales technology adoption and job performance. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 14(1), 7-23.
Johlke, M. C. (2006). Sales presentation skills and salesperson job performance. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 21(5), 311-319.
Judge, T. A., Jackson, C. L., Shaw, J. C., Scott, B. A., & Rich, B. L. (2007). Self-efficacy and work-related performance: the integral role of individual differences. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(1), 107.
Kadic-Maglajlic, S., Kadic-Maglajlic, S., Vida, I., Vida, I., Obadia, C., Obadia, C., . . . Plank, R. (2016). Clarifying the influence of emotional intelligence on salesperson performance. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 31(7), 877-888.
Kaynak, E., Kara, A., Chow, C. S., & Laukkanen, T. (2016). Role of adaptive selling and customer orientation on salesperson performance: Evidence from two distinct markets of Europe and Asia. Journal of Transnational Management, 21(2), 62-83.
Kemp, E., Borders, A. L., & Ricks, J. M. (2012). Managing Emotions in Personal Selling: Examining the Role of Emotion Regulation Strategy in Salespeople. Journal of Selling and Major Account Management, 12(1), 18.
Kohli, A. K., Shervani, T. A., & Challagalla, G. N. (1998). Learning and performance orientation of salespeople: The role of supervisors. Journal of marketing Research, 263-274.
Krafft, M., Albers, S., & Lal, R. (2004). Relative explanatory power of agency theory and transaction cost analysis in German salesforces. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 21(3), 265-283.
Krishnan, B. C., Netemeyer, R. G., & Boles, J. S. (2002). Self-efficacy, competitiveness, and effort as antecedents of salesperson performance. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 22(4), 285-295.
Lai, M.-C., & Chen, Y.-C. (2012). Self-Efficacy, Effort, Job Performance, Job Satisfaction, and Turnover Intention: The Effect of PersonalCharacteristics on Organization Performance. International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, 3(4), 387.
Lavasani, M. G., Malahmadi, E., & Amani, J. (2010). The role of self-efficacy, task value, and achievement goals in predicting learning approaches and mathematics achievement. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5, 942-947.
Liem, A. D., Lau, S., & Nie, Y. (2008). The role of self-efficacy, task value, and achievement goals in predicting learning strategies, task disengagement, peer relationship, and achievement outcome. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33(4), 486-512.
Limbu, Y. B., Limbu, Y. B., Jayachandran, C., Jayachandran, C., Babin, B. J., Babin, B. J., . . . Peterson, R. T. (2016). Empathy, nonverbal immediacy, and salesperson performance: the mediating role of adaptive selling behavior. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 31(5), 654-667.
McFarland, R. G., & Kidwell, B. (2006). An examination of instrumental and expressive traits on performance: The mediating role of learning, prove, and avoid goal orientations. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 26(2), 143-159.
Mehta, A., Feild, H., Armenakis, A., & Mehta, N. (2008). Team goal orientation and team performance: The mediating role of team planning. Journal of Management.
Miao, C. F., & Evans, K. R. (2012). Effects of formal sales control systems: A combinatory perspective. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 29(2), 181-191.
Miao, C. F., & Evans, K. R. (2013). The interactive effects of sales control systems on salesperson performance: a job demands–resources perspective. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 41(1), 73-90.
Monteiro, R. B., & Vieira, V. A. (2016). Team potency and its impact on performance via self-efficacy and adaptability. BAR-Brazilian Administration Review, 13(1), 98-119.
Nicholls, J. G. (1984). Achievement motivation: Conceptions of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Psychological review, 91(3), 328.
Oliver, R. L., & Anderson, E. (1994). An empirical test of the consequences of behavior-and outcome-based sales control systems. The Journal of marketing, 53-67.
Park, J.-E., & Holloway, B. B. (2003). Adaptive selling behavior revisited: An empirical examination of learning orientation, sales performance, and job satisfaction. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 23(3), 239-251.
Piercy, N. F., Cravens, D. W., & Lane, N. (2009). Sales management control level and competencies: Antecedents and consequences. Industrial Marketing Management, 38(4), 459-467.
Pilling, B. K., & Eroglu, S. (1994). An empirical examination of the impact of salesperson empathy and professionalism and merchandise salability on retail buyers' evaluations. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 14(1), 45-58.
Plank, R. E., & Reid, D. A. (1994). The mediating role of sales behaviors: an alternative perspective of sales performance and effectiveness. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 14(3), 43-56.
Plouffe, C. R., Hulland, J., & Wachner, T. (2009). Customer-directed selling behaviors and performance: a comparison of existing perspectives. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 37(4), 422-439.
Porath, C. L., & Bateman, T. S. (2006). Self-regulation: from goal orientation to job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(1), 185.
Potosky, D., & Ramakrishna, H. (2002). The moderating role of updating climate perceptions in the relationship between goal orientation, self-efficacy, and job performance. Human performance, 15(3), 275-297.
Predmore, C. E., & Bonnice, J. G. (1994). Sales success as predicted by a process measure of adaptability. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 14(4), 55-65.
Rasool, H., Bashir, F., & Rauf-i-Azam, Z. M. N. (2015). The Other Side of Goal Orientation and Training Outcomes: Mediating Role of Training Motivation. Journal of Service Science and Management, 8(05), 726.
Saragih, S. (2015). The effects of job autonomy on work outcomes: Self efficacy as an intervening variable. International Research Journal of Business Studies, 4(3).
Sarvary, M. (2002). Temporal differentiation and the market for second opinions. Journal of marketing Research, 39(1), 129-136.
Shah, S. A. (2015). Impact of Individual Traits on Adaptive Selling Behaviour of Salespersons–A Study on Life Insurance Sector of Pakistan. European Journal of business and management, 7, 28.
Silver, L. S., Dwyer, S., & Alford, B. (2006). Learning and performance goal orientation of salespeople revisited: The role of performance-approach and performance-avoidance orientations. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 26(1), 27-38.
Singh, R., & Das, G. (2013). The impact of job satisfaction, adaptive selling behaviors and customer orientation on salesperson's performance: exploring the moderating role of selling experience. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 28(7), 554-564.
Singh, R., & Koshy, A. (2010). Determinants of B2B salespersons' performance and effectiveness: a review and synthesis of literature. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 25(7), 535-546.
Singh, R., Seshadri, D., Agnihotri, R., Krush, M., & Singh, R. K. (2012). Understanding the mechanism linking interpersonal traits to pro-social behaviors among salespeople: Lessons from India. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 27(3), 211-227.
Singh, R., & Venugopal, P. (2015). The impact of salesperson customer orientation on sales performance via mediating mechanism. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 30(5), 594-607.
Spanjol, J., Tam, L., Qualls, W. J., & Bohlmann, J. D. (2011). New product team decision making: Regulatory focus effects on number, type, and timing decisions. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 28(5), 623-640.
Spiro, R. L., & Weitz, B. A. (1990). Adaptive selling: Conceptualization, measurement, and nomological validity. Journal of marketing Research, 61-69.
Sujan, H., Weitz, B. A., & Kumar, N. (1994). Learning orientation, working smart, and effective selling. The Journal of marketing, 39-52.
Swenson, M. J., & Herche, J. (1994). Social values and salesperson performance: an empirical examination. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 22(3), 283.
Terho, H., Kairisto-Mertanen, L., Bellenger, D., & Johnston, W. J. (2013). Salesperson goal orientations and the selling performance relationship: The critical role of mediation and moderation. Journal of Business Market Management, 6(2), 70-90.
VandeWalle, D. (1997). Development and validation of a work domain goal orientation instrument. Educational and psychological measurement, 57(6), 995-1015.
VandeWalle, D., Brown, S. P., Cron, W. L., & Slocum Jr, J. W. (1999). The influence of goal orientation and self-regulation tactics on sales performance: A longitudinal field test. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(2), 249.
VandeWalle, D., Cron, W. L., & Slocum Jr, J. W. (2001). The role of goal orientation following performance feedback. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(4), 629.
Verbeke, W., Dietz, B., & Verwaal, E. (2011). Drivers of sales performance: a contemporary meta-analysis. Have salespeople become knowledge brokers? Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 39(3), 407-428.
Walker, O. C., Churchill, G. A., & Ford, N. M. (1979). Where Do We Go from Here?: Selected Conceptual and Empirical Issues concerning the Motivation and Performance of the Industrial Salesforce.
Weitz, B. A., Sujan, H., & Sujan, M. (1986). Knowledge, motivation, and adaptive behavior: A framework for improving selling effectiveness. The Journal of marketing, 174-191.
Wong, K.-L., & Tan, C.-L. (2016). INFLUENCE OF SUPERVISORY CONTROL ON SALESPERSON PERFORMANCE: EXAMINING THE ROLE OF ADAPTIVE SELLING BEHAVIOUR AS A MEDIATOR. Asian Academy of Management Journal, 21(2), 183-203.
Wood, R., & Bandura, A. (1989). Social cognitive theory of organizational management. Academy of Management review, 14(3), 361-384.
Yailagh, M. S., Birgani, S. A., Boostani, F., & Hajiyakhchali, A. (2013). The relationship of self-efficacy and achievement goals with metacognition in female high school students in Iran. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 84, 117-119.
Yakasai, A. M., & Jan, M. T. (2015). The impact of big five personality traits on salespeople's performance: Exploring the moderating role of culture. Kuwait Chapter of the Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 4(5), 11.
Yuan, F., & Woodman, R. W. (2010). Innovative behavior in the workplace: The role of performance and image outcome expectations. Academy of management journal, 53(2), 323-342.
Zimmerman, B. J., & Schunk, D. H. (2003). Albert Bandura: The scholar and his contributions to educational psychology.
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the Publisher. The Editors reserve the right to edit or otherwise alter all contributions, but authors will receive proofs for approval before publication.
Copyrights for articles published in International Journal of Innovative Knowledge Concepts are retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.