The Role of Singh Sabha Movement in Creating Sikh Consciousness
AbstractFreedom struggle in the Punjab was essentially inspired by the social, religious and political awakening among the Sikhs. The annexation of the Punjab by the British in 1849 brought many changes in the Punjab. The Christian missionaries established their centers in various cities for propagating Christianity. These missionaries enjoyed the support of the British officials. Many people including the Sikhs started embracing Christianity. Maharaja Dalip Singh adopted Christianity in 1853. The Hindu reformist movements like Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj, Dev Samaj were also started in the Punjab. There were many factors responsible for awareness among the Sikhs and Sikh identity consciousness. First major factor was the western influence introduced by British government and Christian Missionaries. The second was anti-Sikh speeches of the Hindu propagandists. It became essential to eliminate the evils, which were prevalent in the society and religion of the Sikhs. The Singh Sabha movement came into existence. It affected the Punjab during the late nineteenth century. This socio-religious movement brought a great religious and political awakening among the Sikhs.
Sushil Madhav Pathak, American Missionaries and Hinduism, Munshiram Manoharlal, Delhi, 1967, p.143.
Robert Clark, Thirty Years of Missionaries Work of Church Missionary Society in the Punjab and Sindh 1852 to 1882, Albert, Lahore,1883, p.4.
Khushwant Singh, A History of the Sikhs,Vol. 2, Oxford University Press, Bombay, 1966,pp.137-38.
Harbans Singh, “Origin of the Singh Sabha”, The Punjab Past and Present Essay in Honoru Dr. Ganda Singh, Punjabi University, Patiala, 1976, pp.273-281.
Gerald, N., Barrier, The Sikhs and Their Literature, Manohar Book Service, Delhi, 1970 pp.XXIV-XXV.
Khushwant Singh, A History of the Sikhs,Vol. 2, pp.136-40.
Kenneth W. Jones “Hum Hindu Nahian, The Arya Sikh Relations 1877-1965”The Punjab Past and Present, Vol. VI, Part II, No.22, Punjabi University Patiala, 1971.
Gopal Singh, A History of the Sikh People, Sikh University Press, New Delhi, 1979, p.611.
Ganda Singh, “The Origin of the Hindu-Sikh Tensions of the Punjab”,The Punjab Past and Present, Vol. XI, II, No. 22, Punjabi University Patiala, 1977, p. 326.
Kahan Singh Nabha, Hum Hindu Nahin, S.G.P.C., Amritsar, 1981, (5th ed.).
Ganda Singh (ed.), Autobiography of Bhagat Lakshman Singh, p. xi.
N.G. Barrier, The Sikhs and Their Literature, pp. xxx-xxxiv.
K.C. Gulati, The Akali Past and Present, Ashajanak Publication, New Delhi, 1974, pp. 18-19.
Ganda Singh, Some Confidential Papers of the Akali Movement, S.G.P.C., Amritsar, 1965, p. XXV
Khuswant Singh., The Sikhs, George Allen and Unwin, London, 1953, p. 50.
Fauja Singh, “Akalis and the Indian National Congress (1920-47)”, The Punjab Past and Present, Vol. XV-II, No. 30, Punjabi University Patiala, 1981, pp. 453-54.
Autobiography of Bhagat Lakshman Singh, pp. xi.
Ganda Singh, A History of Khalsa College, Amritsar, 1950, p. 140.
S.C. Mittal, Freedom Movement in Punjab 1905-29, Concept Publishing Company, Delhi, 1977, pp.15-18.
N.G. Barrier, The Sikhs and Their Literature, p. xxviii.
Ibid., pp. xxxix-xl.
G.W. Leitner, History of Indigenous Education in the Punjab Since Annexation, The Punjab Languages Department, Patiala, 1971, p. 166.
Census Report of India, 1881, p. 402. (The Sikh are the most uneducated class in the Punjab).
Ganda Singh, “Sikh Educational Conference”, The Punjab Past and Present, Vol. VII, 1973, pp. 68-70.
Gurdarshan Singh, “Chief Khalsa Diwan Fifty Years of Service (1902-51)”, The Punjab Past and Present, Vol. VII-I, April 1973, pp. 59-61.
Kashmir Singh, History of the Khalsa College Amritsar, M.Phil. Dissertation, Department of History, G.N.D.U., 1984, p. 1.
Mohinder Singh, The Akali Movement, Macmillan Press, Delhi, 1978, pp. 5-6.
Khushwant Singh, A History of the Sikhs, Vol.2, p. 193.
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