Aggression and Violence Provoking Music: A Comparative Study

  • Pooja Jaggi Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Mata Sundri College, New Delhi-110002.
Keywords: Violent Music, Aggression, Adolescents and Young Adults

Abstract

The increasing popularity of music among young people establishes its importance as an influential factor in their life. Many research studies point out to a linkage between music and behavior. This paper focusses on the role of violence provoking music and its relation to the deviant behavior in adolescents and young adults. The present study investigates the effects of violent music on the aggression level of adolescents and young adults. A sample of 100 individuals i.e. 50 adolescents of 15-18 years of age and 50 young adults of 19-21 years of age were taken. A self constructed music preference questionnaire was used to assess the music preferences of the sample. Buss and Perry (1992) aggression questionnaire was used to assess the aggressive tendency. The results clearly establish that violence provoking music can lead to increase in aggression levels in both adolescents and young adults. However, the effect of such music is similar for both age groups with no significant difference in aggression levels between adolescents and young adults who listen to violence provoking music.

References

Anderson, C. A., Carnagey, N., & Eubanks, J. (2003). Exposure to violent media: The effects of songs with violent lyrics on aggressive thoughts and feelings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,84(5) , 960-971.
Anderson, C. C. (2003). Exposure to violent media: The effects of songs with violent lyrics on aggressive thoughts and feelings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(5) , 960-971.
Anderson, C. (1997). Effects of violent music and trait irritability on hostile feelings and aggressive thoughts. Aggressive Behavior,23 , 161-178.
Anderson, C., & Bushman, B. (2002). Humam aggression. Annual Review of Psychology,53 , 27-51.
Anderson, C., Carnagey, N., & Eubanks, J. (2003). Exposure to violent media: The effects of songs with violent lyrics on aggressive thoughts and feelings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,84 , 960-971.
Arnett. (1992). Reckless behaviour in adolescence. A Developmental Perspective. Developmental Review , 12, 339-373.
Arnett, J. (1991a). Adolescents and heavy metal music; from the mouth of metalheads. Youth and Society,23 , 76-98.
Arnett, J. (1991b). Heavy metal usic and reckless behavior among adolescents . Journal of Youth and Adolescents,20 , 573-591.
Aubrey, J., Hopper, K., & Mbure, G. (2011). Check That Body! The Effects of Sexually Objectifying Music Videos on College Men's Sexual Beliefs. Journal of Broadcasting and Ellectronic Media , 55.3, 267-379.
Audra D, Burch, & Mazzei, P. (2018). Death Toll Is at 17 and Could Rise in Florida School Shooting. The New York Times.
Audra, D., Burch, & Mazzei, P. (2018). Death Toll Is at 17 and Could Rise in Florida School Shooting. The New York Times.
Baker F.A., B. W. (2008). Can music preference indicate mental health status in young people? Australas. Psychiatry 16 , 284-288.
Berkowitz, L. (1993). Pain and aggression: Some findings and implications. Motivation and Emotion, 17 , 277-293.
Berkowitz, L., Geen, R., & Donnerstein, E. (1998). Affective aggression: The role of stress, pain and negative affect: Theories, Research and Implications for Social Policy. US: Academiv Press, xiv, (pp. 49-72). San Diego, CA.
Blackmore. (2012). Imaging brain development. The Adoloscent Brain , 61, pp. NeuroImaging, 397-406.
Bodner E., B. M. (2014). Prolem music and its different shades over its fans. Psychol. Music .
Booth, R., & Zhang, Y. (1996). Severe aggression and related conduct problems among runaway and homeless adolescents. Psychiatric Services,47(1) , 75-80.
Brummert-Lennings, H., & Warburton, W. (2011). The effect of auditory versus visual violent media exposure on aggressive behavior: The role of song lyrics, vieo clips, and musical tone. Journal of Adolescence,47 , 794-799.
Buss, A., & Perry, M. (1992). The Aggression Questionnaire. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63 , 452-459.
C.A., A. (1997). Effects of violent movies and trait irritability on hostile feelings and aggressive thoughts. Aggressive Behavior,23 , 161-178.
Campbell, A. (2006). Sex differences in direct aggression: What are the psychological mediators? Aggression and Violent Behavior,11 , 237-264.
Christenson, P., & Roberts, D. (1998). It's Not Only Rock & Roll: Popular Music in the Lives of Adolescents. Hampton Press,Inc. New Jersey.
Cleckley, H. (1976). The Mask of Sanity.
Coyne, S., & Padilla-Walker, L. (2015). Sex, violence, & rock n' roll: Longitudinal effects on aggression, sex nd prosocial behavior during adolescence. Journal of Adolescence,41 , 96-104.
Crick, N., & Grotpeter, J. (1995). Relational aggression, gender, and social-psychologcal adjustment. Child Development,66(3) , 710-722.
Crime in the United States. (2015). Retrieved April 2018, from FBI:UCR: https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2015/crime-in-the-u.s.-2015/offenses-known-to-law-enforcement/offenses-known-to-law-enforcement
Dahlberg, L., & Potter, L. (2001). Youth Violence: developmental pathways and prevention challenges. Americal Journal of Preventive Medicine , 3-14.
Desk, E. W. (2017). Ryan schoolboy killing. New Delhi: The Economic Times.
Ferguson, C. (2008). The School Shooting/Violent Video Game Link: Causal Link or Moral Pnuc? Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 5 , 25-37.
Fickkers, K., Piotrowski, W., Vossen, W., & Valkenburg, V. H. (2013). Double Dose: HIgh family conflict enhances the effects of media violence exposure on adolescents' aggression. Societies,3 , 280-292.
Fischer, P., & Greitemever, T. (2006). Music and aggression: The impact of sexul aggressive song lyrics on aggression-related thoughts, emotions, and behaviors toward the same and the opposite sex. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,32 , 1165-1176.
Gowensmith W. N., B. L. (1997). The effects of heavy metal music on arousal and anger. Music Ther.34 , 33-45.
Gowensmith, W. N., & Bloom, L. (1997). The effects of heavy metal music on arousal and anger. Music Ther.34 , 33-45.
Greitemeyr, T. (2011). Exposure to music with prosocial lyrics reduces aggression: First evidence and test of the underlying mechanism . Journal of Experimental Social Psychology,47 , 28-36.
Hansen, C. (1989). Priming sex-role stereotypic event schemas with rock music videos: Effects on impression favorability, trait inferences, and recall of subsequent male-female interaction. Basic and Applied social Psychology, 10 , 371-391.
Hansen, C. (1989). Priming sex-role stereotypic event schemas with rock music videos: Effects on impression favorability, trait inferences, and recall of subsequent male-female interaction. Basic and Applied social Psychology, 10 , 371-391.
Hansen, C., & Hansen, R. (1988). How rock music videos can change what is seen when boy meets girl: Priming stereotypic appraisal of socla interactions. Sex Roles, 19 , 287-316.
Hansen, C., & Hansen, R. (1990). Rock music videos and antisocial behavior. Basic and Applied Psychology,11 , 357-369.
Heavy Metal and Other Violent Music: How Dangerous is It? (1999). Retrieved from Good News Ministries of Tampa Bay: http://www.gnm.org/wordbytes/violentmusic.htm. Last retrieved February 22, 2000
Hendricks, C., Bradley, B., & Davis, L. (1999). Using music techniques to treat adolescent depression. Journal of Mumanistic Counseling, Education & Development, 38 , 39-46.
Herd, & Denise. (1979-1997). Changing Images of Violence in Rap Music Lyrics. Journal of Public Health Policy , 30.4, 395-406.
Hoga, M., & Bar-on, M. (1996). Impact of Music Lyrics and Music Videos on Children and Youth. Pediatrics , 98.6, 12-19.
HT Correspondent. (2018). Class 12 Haryana student guns down principal in Yamunanagar school. Yamuna Nagar: Hindustan Times.
J., A. (1991). Heavy metal music and reckless behavior among adolescents. Youth Adolesc. , 573-592.
Johnson, J. A. (1995). Differential gender effects of exposure to rap music on African American adolescents' acceptance of teen dating violence. Sex Roles,33 , 597-605.
Johnson, J. J. (1995). Violent attitudes and deferred academic aspirations: Deleterious effects of exposure to rap music. Basin and Applied Social Psychology,16(1-2) , 27-41.
Johnson, J., & Cohen P., S. M. (2002). Television viewing and aggressive behavior during adolescence and adulthood. Science,295(5564) , 2468-2471.
Johnson, J., Adams, M., & Ashburn, L. (1995). Differential Gender Effects of Exposure to Rp Map on African American Adlescents' Acceptance of Teen Dating Violence. Sex Roles .
Johnson, J., Cohen, S. M., Kasen, S., & Brook, J. (2002). Television viewing and aggressive behavior during adolescence and adulthood. Science,295(5564) , 2468-2471.
Juslin P. N.;Sloboda J. (2010). Handbook of music and emotion: Theory, research, applications. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Juslin, P., & Sloboda, J. (2010). Handbook of music and emotion: Theory, research, applications. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kulanjiyil, T. (2010, November 20). Traditional Indian Parenting practices. India Tribune .
Lee, V., & Hoaken, P. (2007). Cognition, emotion and neurobiological development: Mediating the relationship between maltreatment and aggression. Child Maltreatment,12 , 281-198.
Lefevre, M. (2004). Playing with sound: the therapeutic use of usic in direct work with children. Child and Family Social Work, 9 , 333-345.
Lougheed, M. (2017, September 29). Child Rearing Practies and Beliefs in Indian Culture. Retrieved April 16, 2018, from Child rearing beliefs and practices in Indian culture: http://classroom.synonym.com/child-rearing-beliefs-and-practices-in-indian-culture-12087319.html
Magid, M. a. (2007). Does disinhibition mediate alcohol use and risk taking?
Meyer, L. (1956). Emotion and meaning in music . The University of Chicago Press. Chicago.
North, A., & Hargreaves, D. (2006). Problem music and self harming. Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior,36 , 582-590.
Papinczak Z, E., Dingle, G., Stoyanov, S., Hides, L., & Zelenko, O. (n.d.). Young people's use of music for well being. J. Youth Studies .
Peterson, D. &. (1989). Influence of rock videos on attitudes of violence against women. Psychological Reports,64 , 319-322.
Pieschl, S., & Fegers, S. (2016). Violent lyrics = aggressive listeners? Effects of song lyrics and tempo on cognition, affect, and self-reported arousal. Journal of Media Psychology,28 , 32-41.
Rehman, S., & Reilly, S. (1985). Music videos: a new dimension of televised violence. Pennsylvania Speech Communication Annual.
Roe, K. (1995). Adolescents' use of socially disvalued media: Towards a theory of media delinquency. Journal of Youth and Adolescence,24 , 617-631.
Saarikallio, S. (2011). Music as emotional self-regulation throughout adulthood. Music 39 , pp. 307-327.
Shafron G.R., K. M. (2013). Heavy metal music and emotional dysphoria among listeners. Psychology pop.Media cult.2, 74 .
Sharma, D. (2017). Most Punjabi pop songs romanticise drugs and violence, says IIM-A study. Times of India.
St. Lawrence, J. J. (1991). The effects of sexually violent rock music on males' acceptance of violence against women. Psychology of Women Quarterly,15 , 49-63.
Stack S., G. J. (1994). The heavy metal subculture and suicide. Suicide Life Threat. Behav.31 , 15-23.
Stack, S., Gunldach, J., & Reeves, J. (1994). The heavy metal subculture and suicide. Suicide Life Threat. Behav.31 , 15-23.
Stanger, N. K. (2012). Put yourself in their boots: Effects of empathy on emotional and ggression. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology,34 , 208-222.
Thoma, M., Ryf, C., Mohiyeddini, C., Ehlert, U., & Nater, M. (2012). Emotion reulation through listening to usic in everyday situations. Cogn. Emot.26 , 550-560.
Wallace, K. (2015, november 4). CNN. Teens spend a 'mind-boggling' 9 hours a day using media .
Wheeler, B., Sokhadze, E., Baruth, J., Behrens, G., & Quinn C., F. (2011). Musically induced emotions: subjective measures of arousal and valence. 224-233.
Wheeler, B., Sokhadze, E., Baruth, J., Behrens, G., & Quinn, C. (2011). Musically induced emotions: subjective measures of arousal and valence. 224-233.
Zimmerman, F., Glew, G., Christakis, D., & Kton, W. (2005). Early cognitive stimulation, emotional support, and television watching as predictorsof subsequent bullying among grade-school children. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 159(4) , 384-388.
Published
2019-07-27
Section
Articles