Ecotourism Studies: Lessons From Literature Review

  • Soumik Sarkar PhD scholar, School of Oceanographic Studies1, Jadavpur University,
  • Suchandra Bardhan Professor, Department of Architecture, Jadavpur University
  • Pranabes Sanyal Guest faculty, School of Oceanographic Studies3, Jadavpur University
Keywords: ecotourism, sustainable development, triple bottom-line, carrying capacity, ecological footprint

Abstract

Tourism is a widely acclaimed cultural-cum-economic activity through out the world. It has also evolved into a discipline where training and education is offered. Tourism may be classified into several sectors and categories, in which nature-based tourism occupies a significant place. However, the negative environmental and ecological impacts associated with such tourism are also largely acknowledged. The notion of ecotourism developed to address this concern and suggests ways to mellow these down to a reversible level that is sustainable in long-term. Several concepts, theories and hypotheses have been formulated to this effect. This paper attempts to examine, understand and present the collected information from scholarly works in such field in an assorted way to build a knowledge base as well as assist focused studies in this subject area. It also provides insights into both qualitative and quantitative approaches that discuss ecotourism assessment parameters, tools/metrics & indices advocated by different researchers. Carrying capacity and ecological footprint methodologies are important tracks in this direction. The literature review spans a little over three decades, ending almost recent time. In the process of the discourse, ecotourism also emerges as part of sustainable development due to its close connection with natural resources, ecology and dependent community.

References

1. Annual Report (2011 – 2012). Ministry of Tourism, Government of India, 30 – 32.
2. Anonymous. (1998). Call of the wild: the new frontier of travel. Macleans 111:44.
3. Banerjee, M. (2014). ECO Tourism in Sundarbans…A life Line For Local People and the Ecology. International Journal of Science and Research, 3 (11), 1 – 11.
4. Banerjee, U. K., Kumari, S., Paul, S. K., & Sudhakar, S. (2002). Remote Sensing and GIS based ecotourism planning: A case study for Western midnapore, West Bengal, India. From www.geospatialworld.net.
5. Bardhan, S., Ghosh, B., Hazra, S., & Chatterjee, M. (2010). Retrofitting potential of an existing tourist lodge for improved environmental performance: An Investigation. Journal of the Ecology and the Environment, 142.
6. Bendell, J., & Font, X. (2004). Which Tourism Rules? Green Standards and GATS. Annals of Tourism Research, 31 (1), 139–156.
7. Bhuiyan, Md., Siwar, C., Ismail, S., & Islam, R. (2012). The Role of Ecotourism for Sustainable Development in East Coast Economic Region (ECER), Malaysia. OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development, 3 (9), 53 – 60.
8. Blamey, R. K. (1997). Ecotourism: The Search for an Operational Definition. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 5 (2), 109-130.
9. Blamey, R. K. (2001). Principles of Ecotourism, In Weaver, D. B. (Ed). Encyclopedia of Ecotourism, New York: CABI Publishing, 5-22.
10. Boxall, P. C., & B, L. Mcfarlane. (1993). Human dimensions of Christmas bird counts: implications for nonconsumptive wildlife recreation programs. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 21, 390–396.
11. Brandon, K. (1996). Ecotourism and Conservation: A Review of Key Issues, Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development. The World Bank.
12. Buchsbaum, D. B. (2004). Ecotourism and Sustainable Development in Costa Rica. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1 – 59.
13. Castellani, V., & Sala, S. (2008). Ecological footprint: a way to assess the impact of tourists’ choices at the local scale, Sustainable Tourism III, 197-206.
14. Chen, J., Ye, G., Jing, C., Wu, J., & Ma, P. (2017). Ecological footprint analysis on tourism carrying capacity at the Zhoushan Archipelago, China. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 22 (10), 1049-1062.
15. Chi, Y., & E, J. Luzar. (1998). An economic analysis of nonconsumptive wildlife recreation expenditures. Louisiana Rural Economist, 60, 8–11.
16. Cole, V., and Sinclair, A. J. (2002). Measuring the Ecological Footprint of a Himalayan Tourist Center. Mountain Research and Development, 22 (2), 132-141.
17. Eadington, R., and V, Smith. (1992). Introduction: the emergence of alternative forms of tourism. Pages 1–12 in V. Smith and R. Eadington, editors. Tourism alternatives. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.
18. ECO INDIA, http://www.ecoindia.com/sustainable-tourism/ (accessed May 2019)
19. Fennel, D. A. (2002). Ecotourism Programme Planning. Oxon and New York: CABI.
20. Gossling, S., Hansson, C. B., Horstmeier, O., & Saggel, S. (2002). Ecological footprint analysis as a tool to assess tourism sustainability. Ecological Economics, 43 (2-3),199-211.
21. Gray, N. (2003). Unpacking the Baggage of Ecotourism: Nature, Science and Local Participation. Great Lakes Geographer, 9 (2), 113-123.
22. Green Global Travel is an ecotourism, nature/wildlife conservation & cultural preservation, Available: https://greenglobaltravel.com/what-is-ecotourism-10-simple-steps-to-more-sustainable-travel/#A%20BRIEF%20HISTORY%20OF%20ECOTOURISM
23. Guha, I., & Ghosh, S. (2007). Does Tourism Contribute to Local Livelihoods? A Case Study of Tourism, Poverty and Conservation in the Indian Sundarbans. SANDEE working paper No. 26 -07, 1 – 47.
24. Hawkins, D. E., & Khan, M. M. (1998). Ecotourism Opportunities for Developing Countries. In Theobald, W.F. (Ed.). Global Tourism, 2nd Ed., Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. 191-204.
25. Honey, M. (1999). Ecotourism and Sustainable Development: Who owns Paradise? Island Press, Washington D.C.
26. Hossain, E. (March 2014). Eco-tourism in the Sundarbans, West Bengal, India. Research Directions, 1 (9), ISSN: 2321 – 5488.
27. Hunter, C. (1995). Key concepts for tourism and the environment. In: Hunter, C., & Green, H. (eds.). Tourism and the Environment. A sustainable relationship? Routledge, London-New York. 52–92.
28. Hunter, C. (2002). Sustainable Tourism and the Touristic Ecological Footprint. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 4 (1), 7-20.
29. Johnson, P. A. (2016). Exploring the Ecological Footprint of Tourism in Ontario. MA Thesis, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/239929502
30. Joshi, V. M. (2014). Eco-Tourism – A Key to Protect the Biodiversity in Maharashtra. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 3 (8), 1 – 8.
31. Kumari, S., Behera, M. D., & Tewari, H. R. (2010). Identification of potential ecotourism sites in West District, Sikkim using geospatial tools. International Society for Tropical Ecology 51(1), 75 – 85.
32. Lenzen, Manfred; & Murray, Shauna. A. (2001). A modified ecological footprint method and its application to Australia. Ecological Economics. 37 (2), 229–255. doi:10.1016/S0921-8009(00)00275-5.
33. Leones, J., B, Colby., & K, Crandall. (1998). Tracking expenditure of the elusive nature tourists of southeastern Arizona, Journal of Travel Research, 36, 56–61.
34. Luzar, E. J., Diagne, A., Gan, C., & Henning, B. R. (1995). Evaluating nature-based tourism using the new environmental paradigm. Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics 27 (2), 544–555.
35. Mandal, M., Dandapath, P. K., & Shukla, J. (January 2013). Emerging Dimension of Coastal Eco-Tourism Resources Along The Coastal of West Bengal, India. International Journal of Advanced Research in Management and Social Sciences, 2 (1), 58 – 73.
36. Mcneely, J. A., & Thorsell, J. W. (1987). Guidelines for the development of terrestrial and marine national parks for tourism and travel. IUCN, Gland.
37. Mehrdad, R., & Mahmoud, R. (2011). GIS Based Process Used to Determine the Locations of Ecotourism Sites Based on Climatic Variables. World Applied Sciences Journal, 13(9), 2027-2031.
38. Meric, H. J., & J, Hunt. (1998). Ecotourists’ motivational and demographic characteristics: a case of North Carolina travelers. Journal of Travel Research, 36, 57–61.
39. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, (2005). Ecosystem and Human Well-being: Synthesis, Island Press, Washington, D.C., from http://www.maweb.org/documents/document.356.aspx.pdf
40. Mirsanjari, Mir. M., Angali, K. A., Dhumal, K. N., & Gavali, R. S. (2007). Importance of Lake potential for Development of Ecotourism in Pune District. Proceeding of Taal2007: The 12th World Lake Conference: 1186 – 1196.
41. Monteath, C. (1997). Journey to the bottom of the world. Geographical Magazine, 70:21–27.
42. Newberry, B. (1997). In league with Captain Nemo. Geographical Magazine, 69, 35–41.
43. Nord, M., Luloff, A. E., & Bridger, J. C. (1998). The association of forest recreation with environmentalism. Environment and Behavior, 30, 23–34.
44. Oladi, J., & Otghsara, F. T. (2012). Feasibility study on ecotourism potential areas using remote sensing and geographic information system (case study: Abbasabad forest area, Veresk, Iran). Caspian J. Env. Sci., 10 (1), 83 – 90.
45. PAP/RAC. (1997). Guidelines for Carrying Capacity Assessment for Tourism in Mediterranean Coastal Areas. Priority Actions Programme Regional Activity Centre, Split. viii + 51 p.
46. Parker S., & Khare, A. (2008). Understanding Success Factors for Ensuring Sustainability in Ecotourism Development in Southern Africa. Journal of Ecotourism, 32 – 46.
47. Prasad, G. P. N. (2012). Ecotourism and its Development. Altar Publishing House, New Delhi.
48. Priskin, J. (2001). Assessment of natural resources for nature – based tourism: the case of the Central Coast Region of Western Australia. Tourism Management, 22, 637 – 648.
49. Quammen, D. (1992). The economy of nature. Outside (February) 1992, 25–33.
50. Quicoy, A. R., & Briones, N. D. (December 2009). Beach Carrying Capacity Assessment of Coastal Ecotourism in Calatagan, Batangas, Phlippines. Journal of Environmental Science and Management, 12 (2), 11– 27.
51. Rahman, Md. A. (2010). Master’s Thesis on Application of GIS in Ecotourism Development: A Case Study in Sundarbans, Bangladesh. Department of Social Science, Mid Sweden University, 1 – 79.
52. Raju, S. A. J. (2007). A Textbook of Ecotourism Ecorestoration and Sustainable Development. New Central book Agency (P) Ltd, Kolkata.
53. Ramanathan, A. L., Bhattacharya, P., & Dittmar, T. (2010). Management and Sustainable Development of Coastal Zone Environments. Capital Publishing Company, New Delhi.
54. Randall, A. (1987). Resource economics. Second edition. John Wiley and Sons, New York, New York, USA.
55. Ross, S., & Wall, G. (1999). Ecotourism: Towards congruence between theory and practice, Tourism Management, 20, 123-132.
56. Roxe, H. (1998). Interested in an eco-tour? Tread carefully. Time International (6 August) 1998, 6.
57. Sirakaya, E., & Mclellan, R. W. (1998). Modeling tour operators’ voluntary compliance with ecotourism principles: a behavioral approach. Journal of Travel Research, 36, 42–55.
58. Swarbrooke, J. (1999). Sustainable Tourism Management. Oxon and New York: CABI.
59. The Economist. (1997). A good trip? Ecotourism. The Economist (30 August) 1997, 48–49.
60. The International Ecotourism Society. (TIES, 1990). From https://ecotourism.org/what-is-ecotourism.
61. Torres-Delgado, A., & Palomeque, F. L. (2018). The ISOST index: A tool for studying sustainable tourism,Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, 8 (2), 281-289.
62. Toth, R. (2002). Exploring the Concepts Underlying Certification. In M, Honey. (Ed.). Ecotourism & Certification – Setting Standards in Practice (pp. 73-101). Washington-Covelo-London: Island Press.
63. UNEP. (1996). Guidelines for Integrated Planning and Management of Coastal and Marine Areas in the Wider Caribbean Region. UNEP Caribbean Environment Programme, Kingston, Jamaica, 1996.
64. Wackernagel, M., & Rees, W. (1996). Our Ecological Footprint, New Society Publishers.
65. Weaver, D. B. (1999). Magnitude of Ecotourism in Costa Rica and Kenya, Annals of Tourism Research, 26(4), 792 - 816.
66. Wheat, S. (1998). Go eco (or maybe not). Utne Reader. (August) 1998, 10–11.
67. White Paper on Eco-Tourism Policy (Draft, April 2006). Center for Conservation Governance and Policy, Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment, 1- 28.
68. Whiteman, J. (1996). Ecotourism promotes, protects environment. Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy, 11, 96–101.
69. Wiedner, D., & Kerlinger, P. (1990). Economics of birding: a national survey of active birders. American Birds, 44, 209–213.
70. Wight, P. A. (1996). North American Ecotourists: Market Profile and Trip Characteristics, Journal of Travel Research, 34, 2–14.
71. Witt, de. L., Merwe, van. Der. P., & Saayman, M. (2011). An Ecotourism Model for African National Parks. Book of Proceedings Vol.Ii International Conference on Tourism & Management Studies – Algarve, 2011, 1138 – 1142.
72. Wong, P. P. (1998). Coastal tourism development in Southeast Asia: Relevance and lessons for coastal zone management. Ocean & Coastal Management, 38, 89 – 109.
73. World Commission on Environment and Development. (1987). Our Common Future, Oxford; New York : Oxford University Press.
74. Zacarias, D. A., Williams, A. T., & Newton, A. (2011). Recreation carrying capacity estimations to support beach management at Praia de Faro, Portugal. Journal of Elsevier, Applied Geography, 31, 1075-1081.
75. Ziffer, K. (1989). Ecotourism: The Uneasy Alliance, Washington D.C., Conservation International.
Published
2019-07-27
Section
Articles