Role of Annie Mascarene in the Freedom Movement in Travancore
Travancore was the southernmost native state of British India and comprised the present day lands of the southern part of Kerala and Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu. The state courageously fought for responsible government in Travancore without caste, creed or sex. The condition of women was more deplorable. Not even a single section of women occupied a favourable position then. Even their existence was neglected. They were confined to the four walls of their own home. At this juncture, Annie Mascarene entered into Travancore Politics ignoring all the social taboos inflicted upon women. She was an active Travancore State Congress leader who stood for the liberation of women both from colonial hegemony and traditional patriarchy. She reached into the forefront of the movement by suffering a lot of difficulties. She devoted her life for rendering services to the country.
2. Achuthan Kutty V. (1984) , Annie Mascren (Mal.), Annapurna Publishers, Kozhikkode, 3.
3. Annie Mascarene’s Letter to the Commissioner of Police, Trivandrum, dated 20 May 1938, File No. D.Dis.3483/1944/C S., Directorate of State Archives, Thiruvananthapuram.
4. C. Narayana Pillai. (1972), Thiruvithamkur Swathanthrya Samara Charithram (Mal) Forward Publication, Thiruvananthap(uram, p.624
5. George Mathew, ‘The Paradox of Kerala Women's Social Development and Social Leadership,’ India International Centre Quarterly, Vol. 22, No. 2/3 (summer-monsoon 1995).
6. Government Notification, R O C No. 2882/42,10 August 1942, File No D. Dis. 1571/ 1945/C.S., Directorate of State Archives, Thiruvananthapuram.
7. Jayadeep Sarangi. (2007), Presentations of Colonialism in English New Orientations, Authors Press, New Delhi.
8. Joseph Sebastian Thekkedam, ‘Miss. Annie Mascarene and Travancore State Congress’, South Indian History Proceedings, Vol.22, South Indian History Congress, Thiruvananthapuram, 2002.
9. M S Mani. (1954), A Factual and Critical History of Travancore- Cochin Politics Since Independence, National Book Stall, Kottayam.
10. Notice of the Commissioner of Police Trivandrum to Miss Mascarene dated 17 May 1938, File No. D.Dis 3483/1944/C S, Directorate of State Archives, Thiruvananthapuram.
11. P K V Kaimal. (1994), Revolt of the Oppressed Pummapra Vayalar, 1946, Konark Publishers, New Delhi.
12. Peter D. (2009), Liberation of the Oppressed-A Continuous Struggle: A Case Study (Since 1822 AD), Kanyakumari Institute of Development Studies, Nagercoil.
13. Ponkunnam Varkey. (1963), Thoolika Chithrangal (Mal.), Current Books, Thrissur.
14. Printed Palmphlet Published by Annie Mascarene, 2 May, 1938, File No.D. Dis 3483/1944/C.S, Directorate of State Archives, Thiruvananthapuram.
15. Raimon S (ed). (2006), The History of Freedom Movement in Kerala (1938-1948), Vol.3, Kerala State Archives, Department, Government of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram.
16. Raimon S. (2006), Swathanthra Samara Senanikalude Nirodhikkappetta Krithikal (Mal), Kerala State Archives, Department, Government of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram.
17. Report of the Inspector General of Police, Travancore submitted to Administrative Secratary to Diwan, Thiruvananthapuram, 23 July 1947, File No D. Dis. 508/ 1947/C.S., Directorate of State Archives, Thiruvananthapuram.
18. Sreedhara Menon A. (1988) , The Survey of Kerala History, S Viswanathan Printers & Publishers, Madras.
19. Sreedhara Menon A. (1978), Kerala Samskaram (Mal.), S. Viswanathan Printers & Publishers, Madras.
20. TendulakarD G. (1940), Life of Mahatma Gandhi, Bombay.
21. .The Hindu, 28 February, 1938.
22. The Hindu, 11 January, 1946.
23. The Statement issued to the Press by Annie Mascrene Vakil and Member of Travancore State Congress Working Committee on 2nd May 1938.
24. Travancore Today, Her Struggle for Freedom, The Working Committee of the Travancore State Congress, Cochin, 1938.
25. The Empire Times, 14 May, 1938.
26. Proceedings of the Travancore Legislative Assembly, 8th November1950, p. 133
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