Elemental analysis of Aegle marmelos L. leaves by ICP-MS Technique

  • M.G. Jadhav
  • S.S. Pawar Aegle marmelos L., Elements, ICP-MS, Herbal medicines


Traditionally used medicinal plants have been always in focus for their immense uses in preliminary health issues. Medicinal plants contain organic and inorganic constituents and many medicinal plants are found to be rich in elements, thereby providing a possible link to the therapeutic action of the medicine. Aegle marmelos L. has great significance in Ayurveda and used to treat numerous diseases. The present study was carried out to determine macro, micro and trace elements in Aegle marmelos L. leaves by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) technique. In total, twenty seven elements have been screened from Aegle marmelos L. leaves out of which twenty five elements were detected in varying concentrations. The data on elemental concentration in Aegle marmelos L. leaves will be useful to enhance the curative process of ill health in an individual and also to set new standards in herbal medicines for preparing different formulations.


1. Annalakshmi, R., Uma, R., Subash, C. G., Sahayam, C. S., Charles, A. (2012). Evaluation of elemental content of leaves of Madhuca longifolia by X-Ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). Journal of Natural Product and Plant Resources, 2 (4), 490-493.
2. Arinola, O. G. (2008). Essential trace elements and metal binding proteins in Nigerian consumers of alcoholic beverages. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 7 (6), 763-765.
3. Arinola, O. G., Badmos, S. O. & Ademowo, O. G. (2008b). Trace elements and antioxidant status in Gravid BALB/C mice infected with Plasmodium yoelii malaria parasites at different gestational periods. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 7 (6), 757-762.
4. Arinola, O. G., Nwozo, S. O., Ajiboye, J. A. & Oniye, A. H. (2008c). Evaluation of trace elements and total antioxidant status in Nigerian Cassava processors. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 7 (6), 770-772.
5. Arinola, O. G., Olaniyi, J. A. & Akiibinu, M. O. (2008a). Evaluation of antioxidant levels and trace element status in Nigerian sickle cell disease patients with Plasmodium parasitaemia. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 7 (6), 766-769.
6. Asagba, S. O. & Obi, F. O. (2005). A comparative evaluation of the biological effects of environmental cadmium contaminated control diet and laboratory cadmium supplemented test diet. BioMetals, 18,155-161.
7. Asagba, S. O., Eriyamremu, G. E., Adaikpoh, M. A. & Ezeoma, A. (2004). Levels of lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase and Na*/K*- ATPase in some tissues of rats exposed to a Nigerian diet and calcium. Biological Trace Element Research, 100 (1), 075-086.
8. Ashraf, M., Hayat, M. Q. & Samad, A. M. (2010). A study on elemental contents of medicinally important species of Artemisia L. (Arteraceae) found in Pakistan. Journal of medicinal Plants Research, 4 (21), 2256-2263.
9. Chandra, R. K. (1990). Micro–Nutrients and immune functions: An overview. Annals of The New York Academy of Sciences, 587, 9-16.
10. Chaturvedi, U. C., Shrivastava, R. & Upreti, R. K. (2004). Viral infections and trace elements: A complex interaction. Current Science, 87 (11), 1536-1554.
11. Clark, L. C. et. al. (1996). Effects of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in patients with carcinoma of skin. The Journal of The American Medical Association, 276, 1957-1985.
12. Corn, M. (1993). Handbook of hazardous materials. San Diego (CA), Academic Press.
13. Deokar, T. G., Pawar, S. S. & Jadhav, M. G. (2017). FESEM and FTIR spectroscopic characterization of Aegle marmelos L. unripe fruit. International Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 6 (1), 34-39.
14. Deosthale, Y. G. & Gopalan, C. (1974). The effect of molybdenum levels in Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers.) on uric acid and copper excretion in man. British Journal of Nutrition, 31,451.
15. El-Behairy, F., El-Blassouy, E. & Diwany, K. M. (1997). Manual of Pediatrics. University Book Centre,16.
16. Ellis, D. R. & Salt, D. E. (2003). Plants, selenium and human health. Current Opinions in Plant Biology, 6, 273-279.
17. Eruvbetine D. (2003). Canine nutrition and health. A paper presented at the seminar organized by Kensington Pharmaceutics Nig. Ltd.
18. Frieden, E. (1984). Biochemistry of the essential ultratrace elements. Plenum Press, NewYork.
19. Hambridge, K. M. (1974). Chromium nutrition in man. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 27, 505-514.
20. Hariharan, P. & Manimaran, S. (2014). ICP-MS technique for quantification of potassium and sodium in spray dried extract of shoot juice of banana plant (Musa balbisiana) responsible for anti-urolithiatic and diuretic activity. International Journal of Medicinal Chemistry and Analysis, 4 (3), 170-174.
21. Hass, E. & Levin, B. (2006). Staying healthy with nutrition. The complete guide to diet and nutrition. Celestial Arts Publication, Berkeley, California.
22. Hays, V. W. & Swenson, M. J. (1985). Minerals and Bones. In: Dukes physiology of domestic animals (10th ed.). 449-466.
23. Heaney, R.D. (1994). Thinking straight about calcium. The New England Journal of Medicine, 328 (7), 503-505.
24. Ikeda, S. & Murakami, T. (1995). Zinc chemical form in some traditional soy food, Journal of Food Sciences, 60 (5), 1151-1156.
25. Inam, F., Deo, S., Mahashabde, R., Kadam, N. & Chopra, G. (2011). Comparative account of heavy metal analysis of selected plant species by XRF scanning. Journal of Materials Science and Engineering, 658-661.
26. Jadhav, M. G., Pawar, S. S. & Deokar, T.G. (2017). Determination of elemental and morphological properties of Aegle marmelos L. by FTIR and FESEM techniques. Research Journal of recent Sciences, 6 (2), 40-45.
27. John, E. (2011). Nature’s building blocks: an A-Z guide to the elements. New ed. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
28. Kolata, G. (1982). Value of low sodium diets questioned. Science, 2, 216 (4541), 38-39.
29. Lambers, H., Chapin, F. S. III & Pons, T. L. (2008). Plant physiological ecology. (2nd ed.). New York, Springer.
30. Malhotra, V. K. (1998). Biochemistry for students (10th ed.). Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd. New Delhi, India.
31. Martins, F. T., Santos, M. H., Polo, M., Barbosa, L.C.A. (2007). Effects of the interactions among macronutrients, plant age and photoperiod in composition of H. suaveolens (L.) Poit essential oil from Alfenas (MG), Brazil. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 22,123-129.
32. Murray, R.K., Granner, D. K., Mayes, P. A. & Rodwell, V. W. (2000). Harper’s Biochemistry (25th ed.). McGraw-Hill, Health Profession Division, USA.
33. Nielsen, F. H. (1974). Essentiality and function of nickel, In W G Hoekstra eds., Trace Element Metabolism in Animals, (2nd ed.). University Park Press, Baltimore.
34. Nielsen, F. H. (1976). In : Trace Elements in Human Health and Disease. A Prasad, Editor, Academic Press, New York, 2, 379-399.
35. O’Connor, B. B. (1995). Vernacular health care response to HIV and AIDS. Alternative Therapies, 1 (5), 35-52.
36. Olivares, M., Uauy, R. (1996). Limits of metabolic tolerance to copper and biological basis for present recommendations and regulations. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 63, 846S-852S.
37. Osae, E. K. (2001). Activation analysis of some essential elements in five medicinal plants used in Ghana. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 250 (1), 173-176.
38. Ozcan, M. (2003). Mineral contents of some plants used as condiments in Turkey. Food Chemistry, 84, 437-440.
39. Palumbo, M. j., Putz, F. E. & Talcott, S. T. (2007). Nitrogen fertilizer and gender effects on the secondary metabolism of Yaupon, a caffeine-containing North American holly. Oecologia, 151, 1-9.
40. Pednekar, P. A. & Raman, B. (2013). Multielement determination in methanolic soxhlet leaf extract of Semecarpus anacardium (Linn. F) by ICP-AES technique, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 6 (3), 132-137.
41. Pednekar, P. A. & Raman, B. (2013). The FTIR spectrometric studies of vibrational bands of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. F. leaf, stem powder and extracts. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 6 (1), 159-198.
42. Redddy, V. P., Sahana, N. & Urooj, A. (2012). Antioxidant activity of Aegle marmelos & Psidium guajava leaves. International Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 2 (1), 155-160.
43. Retka, J. A., Maksymowicz & Karmasz, D. (2010). Determination of Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb, Cd by ICP-MS & Hg by AAS in plant samples. International conference on heavy metals in the environment.
44. Rohini, G. Sabitha, K E. & Shyamala, C. S. D. (2004). Bacopa monnieri Linn. Extract modulates antioxidant and marker enzyme status in fibrosarcoma bearing rats. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 42, 776-780.
45. Soeton, K. O., Olaiya, C. O. & Oyewole, O. E. (2010). The importance of mineral elements for humans, domestic animals and plants. A review. African Journal of Food Science, 4 (5), 200-222.
46. Sutton, M. & Burastero, S. R. (2003). Beryllium chemical speciation in elemental human biological fluids. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 16 (9), 1145-1154.
47. Wood, R. J. (2000). Assessment of marginal zinc status in humans. Journal of Nutrition, 130, 1350-1354.
48. World Health Organization. (2005). Quality control methods for medicinal plant materials – Revised Draft Update. Working document QAS/ 05.131/Rev-1, WHO, Geneva.