Spatial Analysis of Primary Education in Reasi District, Jammu & Kashmir

  • Renu Sharma Department of Geography and Geology Central University of Punjab, Bathinda
  • LTS Guite Department of Geography and Geology Central University of Punjab, Bathinda
Keywords: Primary education, literacy, Spatio-function, Socio-economic, Topography, Reasi and Backwardness.

Abstract

Study on ‘Educational backwardness’ has become an interesting study among the researchers looking into the factors behind low literacy rate. In this concern, the focus on primary education has become important as it paves the ‘foundation stone’ for all other levels of education. The present paper is an attempt to bridge the gap between physical and human entity for primary education and seeks to find out ‘how space functions with time in relation to primary education; Does the physical arrangement and social setting of Reasi district is effecting the distribution of primary educational facilities. It is an attempt to understand the changing functions of space in relation to primary education, and provides description and interpretation of educational facilities in Reasi district in the context of Jammu division by looking at ‘the pattern of distribution’ and ‘change within temporal attributes’. It also seeks to find out how physical and socio-economic features affect the primary educational facilities in the area.

References

Books
1. Dikshit, R. D. (1997). Geographical thought: A contextual history of ideas. Delhi: PHI Learning Private Limited.
2. Harvey, David. (1969). Explanations in Geography. Jaipur: Rawat Publications.
Journal article, one author
3. Burchi, F. (2006). Identifying the Role of education in Socio-Economic Development. International Conference on Human and Economic Resources, Izmir, University of Roma Tre, 193 - 206.
4. Coombes, M. (2000). Defining locality boundaries with synthetic data. Environment and Planning A, Volume 32, 1499 – 1518.
5. Guite, L.T. Sasang (2016). Resettlement and Rehabilitation of Conflict Induced - Internally Displaced Persons: A Study of Rural Empowerment Programme in Assam. Asian Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 4, 50 – 53.
6. Khan, K. (2014). Spatio-temporal variation in educational status and level of socio-economic development in Aligarh District, U.P, India. European Journal of Research on Education, Volume 2, 7 - 19.
7. Misra, S. (2012). Contribution of Education in the Socio-Economic Development: An Empirical Study. Theoretical and methodological challenges in social sciences: International Scientific Conference Journal, Volume 5, 369 - 394.
8. Pajankar, Vishal D. (2016). A Case Study on Accessibility of School in Tribal Areas and Its Implications on Educational Inclusiveness. Journal of Education and Practice, Volume 7, 10- 13.
9. Suri, Kavita (2014). Education, conflict and development: A case study of mobile schools for pastoralists in Jammu and Kashmir. IOSR Journal of Research & Method in Education (IOSR-JRME), Volume 4, 12 – 19.
Journal article, two authors
10. E., Mazur and J., Urbanek (1983). Space in Geography. GeoJournal, 7 (2), 139 - 143.
11. Fabiyi, O. and Ogunyemi. S.A. (2015). Spatial Distribution and Accessibility to Post Primary Educational Institution in Ogun State, South western Nigeria: Case Study of Yewa South Local Government Area, Nigeria. Journal of Scientific Research & Reports, 5(7), 542-552.
12. Ganie, R.A. and Ud Din, T.M. (2015). Impact of insurgency on education in Kashmir. Journal of Education and Practice. 6(1),1-162.
13. Govinda, R. and Bandyopadhyay, Madhumita. (2008). Access to Elementary Education in India: Country Analytical Review. Consortium for research on Educational Access, Transitions and Equity.
14. Hepp, P., and Laval, E. (2003). Improving Literacy and Numeracy in Poor Schools: The Main Challenge in Developing Countries. Australian Computer Society, Inc.
15. Karahasan B. C. and Uyar E. (2009). Spatial distribution of education and regional inequalities in Turkey. Munich Personal RePEc Archive.
16. Klapka, P. and Halas M. (2016). Conceptualising patterns of spatial flows: Five decades of advances in the definition and use of functional regions. Moravian Geographical Reports, 24(2), 2-11.
17. Lubienski, Christopher and Lee, Jin (2016). Geo-spatial analyses in education research: the critical challenge and methodological possibilities. Geographical Research Journal.
18. Massar, I. and Scheurwater, J. (1980). Functional regionalisation of spatial interaction data, an evaluation of some suggested strategies. Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space, 12 (12), 1357-1382.
19. Nanda, R. and Aima, A. (2013). Conflict Resolution and Peace Building in J&K State: Need for an Integrated Educational Framework. NCERT, New Delhi, Volume 51.
20. Rather M.A. and Thanikodi A. (2016). Peace and development of education in Jammu and Kashmir: Asia Pacific Journal of Research, 2 (37), 10-20.
21. Sharma A. and Ahmed T. (2015). Regional imbalances and Growth of literacy in Jammu and Kashmir (1981-2011). Periodic Research Journal, 3(3), 61- 68.
22. Singh, S. and Kour, T. (2013). Females Enrolment and Employment in Schools: A study of Jammu Division. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 3(7), 1-7.
23. Shaw Denis J.B & Oldfield J.D. (2007). Landscape Science: A Russian Geographical Tradition. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 97(1), 111–126.
Journal article, three to six authors
24. Etor, C.R., Mbon1, U.F., & Ekanem E.E. (2013). Primary Education as a Foundation for Qualitative Higher Education in Nigeria. Journal of Education and Learning, 2, 155-164.
25. Musa, H. D., Mohammed and Banki B. (2012). An Analysis of Spatial Distribution of Primary and Secondary Schools in Bida Town, Nigeri. Abuja Journal of Geography and Development, 3, 30-39.
26. Ogunyemi S.A., Muibi1 K.H., Eguaroje O.E., Fabiyi O.O., Halilu1 A.S. (2014). A geospatial approach to evaluation of accessibility to secondary educational institution in Ogun State, Nigeria. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 1-13.
27. Rasool, Shafiq, Ahmed and Singh (2016). Disparities in the level of Educational Development in Jammu& Kashmir, India: A district wise Analysis: International research Journal of social sciences, 5, 19-24.
Newspapers
28. Sharma M.M. (2015). Revamping Education Policy in Jammu & Kashmir. Daily Excelsior, Jammu of 23/04/2015.
29. Singh, Gopal (2014). Teachers and election duty. Daily excelsior, Jammu of 05/07/2014.
30. Suri, Kavita (2018). The poor state of school infrastructure in J&K. Daily Excelsior, Jammu of 09/07/2018.
31. Excelsior Correspondent (2018). Cong deliberately neglected backward hilly areas: Dr Jitendra. Daily Excelsior, Jammu of 01/07/2018.
32. Excelsior Correspondent (2014). Gool Arnas ignored by State Govt: Dr Jitendra. Daily Excelsior of 29/11/2014.
Government Reports and Directories
33. Census of India (2011). Directorate of Census operations, Jammu & Kashmir.
34. Comprehensive District Agriculture Plan, Reasi district (2014). Directorate of Agriculture, Jammu, Government of Jammu and Kashmir, Volume 8.
35. District Census Handbook, Reasi (2011). Directorate of census operations, Jammu and Kashmir.
36. Mungekar B. (2009). The Report of the Steering Committee on Elementary Education and Literacy, For the Eleventh five year plan (2007-12). Planning Commission (Education Division), New Delhi.
37. Parruck R.C. and Ghosh A. (2014). Indian School Education System: An Overview. British Council.
38. Regional Digest (2010). Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Government of Jammu and Kashmir.
39. Statistics of School Education (2017). Office of the Chief Education officer, Reasi.
40. Statistics of School Education (2011). Office of the Chief Education officer, Reasi.
41. Statistics of School Education (1981). Office of the Chief Education officer, Udhampur.
42. Village Amenity Directory (2016). Planning and Development Department, Directorate of Economics and Statistics. Government of Jammu and Kashmir.
Other sources
43. Baroutsis Aspa, Comber Barbara and Woods Annette. (2017). Social Geography, Space and Place in Education. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Education, Oxford University
Press USA. 1-23.
44. Dixon D.R., Vogel T., and Tarbox J (2012). A Brief History of Functional Analysis and Applied Behavior Analysis. Springer.
45. Pennington, B., Pokorski, E.A., Kumm, S., & Sterrett, B.I. (2017). Practice Guide: School-Based Functional Analysis. Washington, DC: US Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs.
46. Gupta, R. (2011). Regional Disparities and levels of development: A spatio temporal analysis of Jammu Province from 1981-2001. Jammu and Kashmir: University of Jammu.
Published
2018-12-28
Section
Articles