Grammatical Complexity in Engineering Students’ L2: First Language Interference

  • Amita Dhawan Research Scholar, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar,

Abstract

This paper examines analyses and categorizes global as well as local errors in the writing skills of the undergraduate engineering students.  The assumption was laid on the premise that there is no significant difference between the errors committed by the first and third year students. Errors were explored from different perspectives from a corpus of essay and letter writing. A total of 150 essays and 200 letters written in English language by the first and third year students were analysed using error analyses (EA) taxonomy given by Ferris. A comparative analysis of students’ errors invalidates the null hypothesis and provides the evidence that there is significant difference between the global and local errors committed by students of both the years. The study also corroborate that age does influence the acquisition of a language.

Author Biography

Amita Dhawan, Research Scholar, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar,
Al Dow, Y. (2016). Investigating Grammatical Errors Encountered Secondary school Students in Writing Composition . Sudan: Sudan University of Science Technology. <https://scholar.google.co.in/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=Investigating+Grammatical+Errors+Encountered+Secondary+school+Students+in+Writing+Composition+&btnG= >   Alufoha, P. J. (2016). Grammatical Errors in Written Composition of Junior Secondary School Students in Owan West Local Government Area of EDO State. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development, 5(2), 61-66. <https://scholar.google.co.in/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=Grammatical+Errors+in+Written+Composition+of+Junior+Secondary+School+Students+in+Owan+West+Local+Government+Area+of+EDO+State&btnG=> Ancheta, R. F., & Simagala, E. E. (2017). Grammar errors in written composition of selected level 3 students of Gulf College: Basis for remediation. International Journal of English Research, 63-67. <https://scholar.google.co.in/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=Grammar+errors+in+written+composition+of+selected+level+3+students+of+Gulf+College%3A+Basis+for+remediation&btnG=> Christison, M., Christian, D., Duff, P. A., & Spada, N. (Eds.). (2015). Teaching and Learning English Grammar: Research Findings and Future Directions. London and Newyork:Routledge.Retrieved from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=1317514726 CTI Reviews. (2016). Speech and Language Processing , An Introduction to Natural Language processing, Computational Linguistics and Speech Recognition (2nd ed.). CRAM 101 Textbook Reviews.Retrived from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=1467240400 Darus, S., & Subramaniam, K. (2009). Error Analysis of the Written English Essays of Secondary School Students in Malaysia: A Case Study. European Journal of Social Sciences, 8(3), 483-493. <https://scholar.google.co.in/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=Error+Analysis+of+the+Written+English+Essays+of+Secondary+School+Students+in+Malaysia%3A+&btnG=> Elliott, A. B. (1983). Errors in English. Singapore: NUS.Retreived from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=9971690721 Ellis, R. (1994). The Study of Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Retrieved from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=0194371891 Ferris, D. R. (2011). Treatment of Error in Second Language Student Writing (2nd ed.). Ann Arbor:University of Michigan.Retrieved from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=0472034766 Gluth, E. (2008). Contrastive Analysis and Error Analysis in Respect of Their Treatment of the avoidance phenomenon. Germany:Grin Verlag. Gonzalez, J. M. (Ed.). (2008). Encyclopedia of Bilingual Education. US:Sage.Retrived from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=1412937205 Hourani, T. Y. (2008). An Analysis of the Common Grammatical Errors in the English Writing made by 3rd Secondary Male Students in the Eastern Coast of the UAE. Dubai: British University in Dubai.Retrieved from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=3319641042 James , C. (2013). Errors in Language Learning and Use: Exploring Error Analysis. London and Newyork: Routledge. https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=1317890299 Jenkins, J., Baker, W., & Dewey, M. (Eds.). (2017). The Routledge Handbook of English as Lingua Franca. London and Newyork: Routledge. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=1317509196 Jordan, G. (2004). Theory Construction in Second language Acquistion. Amsterdam/ Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=1588114821 Kane, C. (2011). Grammar and Composition, Grades 5 - 8. Mark Twain Media.Retrived from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=1580376916 Kato, A. (2006). Error Analysis of High School Student Essays. Accent Asia, 1(2), 1-13. Retrieved from https://scholar.google.co.in/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=Kato%2C+A.+%282006%29.+Error+Analysis+of+High+School+Student+Essays.+Accent+Asia%2C+1%282%29%2C+1-13.&btnG= Leacock, C., Chodorow, M., Gamon, M., & Tetreault, J. (2010). Automated Grammatical Error Detection for Language Learners. USA:Morgan & Claypool.Retrieved from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=1608454703 Llach, M. P. (2011). Lexical Errors and Accuracy in Foreign Language Writing. Bristol:Multilingual Matters. Retrieved from  https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=1847694764 Mackenzie, I. (2014). English as Lingua Franca : Theorizing and Teaching English. London and Newyork: Routledge. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=1134503814 Malmkjaer, K. (2009). The Routledge Linguistics Encyclopedia.London and Newyork: Routledge. Retrived from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=1134103700 Mensing, D., & Oliver, M. (2005). Editors at Small Newspaper Say Error Problem Serious. Newspaper Research Journal, 26(4), 6-21. Retrived from https://scholar.google.co.in/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=Mensing%2C+D.%2C+%26+Oliver%2C+M.+%282005%29.+Editors+at+Small+Newspaper+Say+Error+Problem+Serious.+Newspaper+Research+Journal%2C+26%284%29%2C+6-21.&btnG= Mishra, C. K. (2005). Correctionof Errors In English A Training Course for the Teachers of English as a Second Language. New Delhi: Sarup & Sons. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=8176255645 Mynard, J., & Carson, L. (2014). Advising in Language Learning : Dialogue, Tools and Context. London and Newyork: Routledge. Retrievd from s://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=1317860683 Nwigwe, N. V., & Izuabgba, A. C. (2017). An Analysis of Grammatical Errors of Igbo- Speaking Graduates' Written English : Implication for Teaching. Laligens, 6(2), 65-78.Retrieved from https://scholar.google.co.in/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=Nwigwe%2C+N.+V.%2C+%26+Izuabgba%2C+A.+C.+%282017%29.+An+Analysis+of+Grammatical+Errors+of+Igbo-+Speaking+Graduates%27+Written+English+%3A+Implication+for+Teaching.+&btnG= Ojetunde, F. C. (2013). Lexico- Grammatical Errors in Nigerian English : Implication for Nigerian Teachers and Learners of English. European Scientific Journal, 9(17), 225-268. Retrieved from https://scholar.google.co.in/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=Ojetunde%2C+F.+C.+%282013%29.+Lexico-+Grammatical+Errors+in+Nigerian+English+%3A+Implication+for+Nigerian+Teachers+and+Learners+of+English&btnG= Ortega, L. (2014). Understanding Second Language Acquisition. London and Newyork: Routledge. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=144411705X Owu-Ewie,, C., & Williams, R. (2017). Grammatical and Lexical Errors in Students’ English Composition Writing: The Case of Three Senior High Schools (SHS) in the Central Region of Ghana. Sino-US English Teaching, 14(8), 463-482. Retrieved from https://scholar.google.co.in/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=Owu-Ewie%2C%2C+C.%2C+%26+Williams%2C+R.+%282017%29.+Grammatical+and+Lexical+Errors+in+Students%E2%80%99+English+Composition+Writing%3A+The+Case+of+Three+Senior+High+Schools+%28SHS%29+in+the+Central+Region+of+Ghana.+Sino-US+English+Teaching&btnG= Purpura, J. E. (2004). Assessing Grammar. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.Retrieved from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=0521802814 Spillner, B. (1991). Error Analysis: A comprehensive bibliography. Amsterdam/ Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=3732903567 Taghavi, M. (2012). Error Analysis in Composition of Iranian Lower Intermediate Students. Rasht: Guilan University. Retrieved from https://scholar.google.co.in/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=Error+Analysis+in+Composition+of+Iranian+Lower+Intermediate+Students&btnG= Tan , H.-m. (2001). A Study of EFL Learners’ Writing Errors and Instructional Strategies.Taiwan: Kun Shan University. Retrieved from https://scholar.google.co.in/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=Tan+%2C+H.-m.+%282001%29.+A+Study+of+EFL+Learners%E2%80%99+Writing+Errors+and+Instructional+Strategies.Taiwan&btnG= Tizon, M. N. (2009). Error Analysis of LSU Students Written Composition. Retrieved from www.scribd.com/document/345287825/Error-Analysis-of-LSU-Students . Ulla, M. B., & MAELT. (2014). Analysis of the Language Errors in Writing among BSEE and AB English Students. European Journal of Academic Essays, 1(3), 39-47.Retrieved from https://scholar.google.co.in/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=Ulla%2C+M.+B.%2C+%26+MAELT.+%282014%29.+Analysis+of+the+Language+Errors+in+Writing+among+BSEE+and+AB+English+Students&btnG= Vásquez, D. A. (2008). Error Analysis in a Written Composition. Profile's Issues in Teachers' Professional Development,10(1).Retrieved from https://scholar.google.co.in/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=V%C3%A1squez%2C+D.+A.+%282008%29.+Error+Analysis+in+a+Written+Composition.+Profile%27s+Issues+in+Teachers%27+Professional+Development%2C+10.&btnG= Vethamaiccam, M., & Ganapathy, M. (2017). Analysing Errors among Form One Students’ Written English Composition in a Private Chinese School. Asian Journal of Education and E- Learning, 5(1). Retrieved from https://scholar.google.co.in/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=Vethamaiccam%2C+M.%2C+%26+Ganapathy%2C+M.+%282017%29.+Analysing+Errors+among+Form+One+Students%E2%80%99+Written+English+Composition+in+a+Private+Chinese+School&btnG= Wetzorke, R. (2010). An Introduction to the Concept of Error Analysis.Germany: Grin Verlag.Retrieved from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=3640506073 Williams, J. D. (2003). Preparing to Teach Writing : Research, Theory and Practice (3rd ed.). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=1136180540 Wyatt, V. (1973). An Analysis of Errors in Composition Writing. ELT, 27(2), 177-186.Retrieved from https://scholar.google.co.in/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=+An+Analysis+of+Errors+in+Composition+Writing&btnG= Yang, X.-M., & Xu, H. (2001). Errors of Creativity : An Analysis of Lexical Errors Committed by Chinese ESL Students.Lanham:University Press of America.Retrieved from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=0761820264    

References

Al Dow, Y. (2016). Investigating Grammatical Errors Encountered Secondary school Students in Writing Composition . Sudan: Sudan University of Science Technology.

Alufoha, P. J. (2016). Grammatical Errors in Written Composition of Junior Secondary School Students in Owan West Local Government Area of EDO State. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development, 5(2), 61-66.
Ancheta, R. F., & Simagala, E. E. (2017). Grammar errors in written composition of selected level 3 students of Gulf College: Basis for remediation. International Journal of English Research, 63-67.
Christison, M., Christian, D., Duff, P. A., & Spada, N. (Eds.). (2015). Teaching and Learning English Grammar: Research Findings and Future Directions. London and Newyork:Routledge.Retrieved from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=1317514726
CTI Reviews. (2016). Speech and Language Processing , An Introduction to Natural Language processing, Computational Linguistics and Speech Recognition (2nd ed.). CRAM 101 Textbook Reviews.Retrived from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=1467240400
Darus, S., & Subramaniam, K. (2009). Error Analysis of the Written English Essays of Secondary School Students in Malaysia: A Case Study. European Journal of Social Sciences, 8(3), 483-493.
Elliott, A. B. (1983). Errors in English. Singapore: NUS.Retreived from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=9971690721
Ellis, R. (1994). The Study of Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Retrieved from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=0194371891
Ferris, D. R. (2011). Treatment of Error in Second Language Student Writing (2nd ed.). Ann Arbor:University of Michigan.Retrieved from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=0472034766
Gluth, E. (2008). Contrastive Analysis and Error Analysis in Respect of Their Treatment of the avoidance phenomenon. Germany:Grin Verlag.
Gonzalez, J. M. (Ed.). (2008). Encyclopedia of Bilingual Education. US:Sage.Retrived from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=1412937205
Hourani, T. Y. (2008). An Analysis of the Common Grammatical Errors in the English Writing made by 3rd Secondary Male Students in the Eastern Coast of the UAE. Dubai: British University in Dubai.Retrieved from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=3319641042
James , C. (2013). Errors in Language Learning and Use: Exploring Error Analysis. London and Newyork: Routledge. https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=1317890299
Jenkins, J., Baker, W., & Dewey, M. (Eds.). (2017). The Routledge Handbook of English as Lingua Franca. London and Newyork: Routledge. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=1317509196
Jordan, G. (2004). Theory Construction in Second language Acquistion. Amsterdam/ Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=1588114821
Kane, C. (2011). Grammar and Composition, Grades 5 - 8. Mark Twain Media.Retrived from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=1580376916
Kato, A. (2006). Error Analysis of High School Student Essays. Accent Asia, 1(2), 1-13. Retrieved from https://scholar.google.co.in/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=Kato%2C+A.+%282006%29.+Error+Analysis+of+High+School+Student+Essays.+Accent+Asia%2C+1%282%29%2C+1-13.&btnG=
Leacock, C., Chodorow, M., Gamon, M., & Tetreault, J. (2010). Automated Grammatical Error Detection for Language Learners. USA:Morgan & Claypool.Retrieved from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=1608454703
Llach, M. P. (2011). Lexical Errors and Accuracy in Foreign Language Writing. Bristol:Multilingual Matters. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=1847694764
Mackenzie, I. (2014). English as Lingua Franca : Theorizing and Teaching English. London and Newyork: Routledge. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=1134503814
Malmkjaer, K. (2009). The Routledge Linguistics Encyclopedia.London and Newyork: Routledge. Retrived from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=1134103700
Mensing, D., & Oliver, M. (2005). Editors at Small Newspaper Say Error Problem Serious. Newspaper Research Journal, 26(4), 6-21. Retrived from https://scholar.google.co.in/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=Mensing%2C+D.%2C+%26+Oliver%2C+M.+%282005%29.+Editors+at+Small+Newspaper+Say+Error+Problem+Serious.+Newspaper+Research+Journal%2C+26%284%29%2C+6-21.&btnG=
Mishra, C. K. (2005). Correctionof Errors In English A Training Course for the Teachers of English as a Second Language. New Delhi: Sarup & Sons. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=8176255645
Mynard, J., & Carson, L. (2014). Advising in Language Learning : Dialogue, Tools and Context. London and Newyork: Routledge. Retrievd from s://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=1317860683
Nwigwe, N. V., & Izuabgba, A. C. (2017). An Analysis of Grammatical Errors of Igbo- Speaking Graduates' Written English : Implication for Teaching. Laligens, 6(2), 65-78.Retrieved from https://scholar.google.co.in/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=Nwigwe%2C+N.+V.%2C+%26+Izuabgba%2C+A.+C.+%282017%29.+An+Analysis+of+Grammatical+Errors+of+Igbo-+Speaking+Graduates%27+Written+English+%3A+Implication+for+Teaching.+&btnG=
Ojetunde, F. C. (2013). Lexico- Grammatical Errors in Nigerian English : Implication for Nigerian Teachers and Learners of English. European Scientific Journal, 9(17), 225-268. Retrieved from https://scholar.google.co.in/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=Ojetunde%2C+F.+C.+%282013%29.+Lexico-+Grammatical+Errors+in+Nigerian+English+%3A+Implication+for+Nigerian+Teachers+and+Learners+of+English&btnG=
Ortega, L. (2014). Understanding Second Language Acquisition. London and Newyork: Routledge. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=144411705X
Owu-Ewie,, C., & Williams, R. (2017). Grammatical and Lexical Errors in Students’ English Composition Writing: The Case of Three Senior High Schools (SHS) in the Central Region of Ghana. Sino-US English Teaching, 14(8), 463-482. Retrieved from https://scholar.google.co.in/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=Owu-Ewie%2C%2C+C.%2C+%26+Williams%2C+R.+%282017%29.+Grammatical+and+Lexical+Errors+in+Students%E2%80%99+English+Composition+Writing%3A+The+Case+of+Three+Senior+High+Schools+%28SHS%29+in+the+Central+Region+of+Ghana.+Sino-US+English+Teaching&btnG=
Purpura, J. E. (2004). Assessing Grammar. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.Retrieved from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=0521802814
Spillner, B. (1991). Error Analysis: A comprehensive bibliography. Amsterdam/ Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=3732903567
Taghavi, M. (2012). Error Analysis in Composition of Iranian Lower Intermediate Students. Rasht: Guilan University. Retrieved from https://scholar.google.co.in/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=Error+Analysis+in+Composition+of+Iranian+Lower+Intermediate+Students&btnG=
Tan , H.-m. (2001). A Study of EFL Learners’ Writing Errors and Instructional Strategies.Taiwan: Kun Shan University. Retrieved from https://scholar.google.co.in/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=Tan+%2C+H.-m.+%282001%29.+A+Study+of+EFL+Learners%E2%80%99+Writing+Errors+and+Instructional+Strategies.Taiwan&btnG=
Tizon, M. N. (2009). Error Analysis of LSU Students Written Composition. Retrieved from www.scribd.com/document/345287825/Error-Analysis-of-LSU-Students
. Ulla, M. B., & MAELT. (2014). Analysis of the Language Errors in Writing among BSEE and AB English Students. European Journal of Academic Essays, 1(3), 39-47.Retrieved from https://scholar.google.co.in/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=Ulla%2C+M.+B.%2C+%26+MAELT.+%282014%29.+Analysis+of+the+Language+Errors+in+Writing+among+BSEE+and+AB+English+Students&btnG=
Vásquez, D. A. (2008). Error Analysis in a Written Composition. Profile's Issues in Teachers' Professional Development,10(1).Retrieved from https://scholar.google.co.in/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=V%C3%A1squez%2C+D.+A.+%282008%29.+Error+Analysis+in+a+Written+Composition.+Profile%27s+Issues+in+Teachers%27+Professional+Development%2C+10.&btnG=
Vethamaiccam, M., & Ganapathy, M. (2017). Analysing Errors among Form One Students’ Written English Composition in a Private Chinese School. Asian Journal of Education and E- Learning, 5(1). Retrieved from https://scholar.google.co.in/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=Vethamaiccam%2C+M.%2C+%26+Ganapathy%2C+M.+%282017%29.+Analysing+Errors+among+Form+One+Students%E2%80%99+Written+English+Composition+in+a+Private+Chinese+School&btnG=
Wetzorke, R. (2010). An Introduction to the Concept of Error Analysis.Germany: Grin Verlag.Retrieved from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=3640506073
Williams, J. D. (2003). Preparing to Teach Writing : Research, Theory and Practice (3rd ed.). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=1136180540
Wyatt, V. (1973). An Analysis of Errors in Composition Writing. ELT, 27(2), 177-186.Retrieved from https://scholar.google.co.in/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=+An+Analysis+of+Errors+in+Composition+Writing&btnG=
Yang, X.-M., & Xu, H. (2001). Errors of Creativity : An Analysis of Lexical Errors Committed by Chinese ESL Students.Lanham:University Press of America.Retrieved from https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=0761820264
Published
2018-06-27
Section
Articles